WJEC Vocational Award Engineering Level 1/2

Chapter 3 Materials and Properties Examples of ALLOYS include: Alloy Made-up from Common uses Duralumin • Aluminium • Copper • Magnesium • Manganese • Car parts • Aircraft parts Brass • Copper • Zinc • Musical instruments • Ornamental products Stainless steel • Iron • Nickel • Chromium • Medical instruments • Cutlery Alloying agents/elements Modern Engineers use many different alloys that perform all different types of tasks. Different alloying elements have also been discovered and what can be created when they are mixed with metals. We also know what ratios of metals and elements are needed to be mixed to create specific properties. There are some common alloying elements that are used in many modern-day practices. Following are some examples and what properties they can add to an alloy: Alloying element/agent Properties Nickel • Increases strength • Increases hardness • Increased resistance to corrosion Chromium • Increases hardness • Increased resistance to corrosion • Increased toughness Vanadium • Increased toughness of steel • Increased wear resistance Supply of metals When Engineers use metals, they need to know what forms they can be supplied in to ensure that the correct shape is ordered for the engineering project that is being undertaken, as well as to make sure the correct terminology is used when ordering the materials. The various metal shapes you can purchase are mostly going to be extrusions . An extrusion is a fixed sectional shape (think back to sectional drawings) that is continued for a desired length (imagine pushing Play-Doh or Plasticine through a fixed shape). Extrusions are very common shapes used in the world; how many can you see from where you are sitting? Engines are often made from chromium. 47