Pearson BTEC National Applied Psychology: Revision Guide

Contents Introduction 4 Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications 10 Content area A: Key psychological approaches, their assumptions and concepts 10 Content area B: Application of psychological approaches 52 Unit 3 Health psychology 76 Content area A: Lifestyle choice and health-related behaviour 76 Content area B: Stress, behavioural addiction and physiological addiction 98 Content area C: Promotion of positive behavioural change 124 Glossary 154 For a free download of suggested answers to the Apply it questions visit Copyright: Sample material

Introduction Exam advice Types of exam questions AO1 Description (with or without scenario) e.g. State, Give, Name, Describe, Identify Unit 1 + Unit 3 State what is meant by the term ‘vicarious learning’. (1 mark) Give one assumption of the biological approach. (1 mark) Identify one type of conformity. (1 mark) Name one route to persuasion of the elaborationlikelihood model. (1 mark) Describe any one stage of the transtheoretical model. (3 marks) AO2 Application (to scenario) e.g. Describe, Explain, Justify Unit 1 + Unit 3 Jak became a vegan at university when she lived with students who were vegans. She is still a vegan many years later as are most of her friends. Molly went out with Jak for a while and became a vegan during this time. But when the relationship ended Molly went back to eating meat. Explain one possible reason from the social approach why Molly became a vegan. (2 marks) Taz gave up gambling online. But they told a friend they had relapsed, saying, ‘I missed the excitement of going online. I saw the flashing lights, the sounds and colours, and I remembered how much I enjoyed gambling.’ Describe how the learning approach could help us understand why Taz has relapsed. (3 marks) Adi drinks alcohol every day. He admits this is bad for his health but he enjoys it. Adi’s best friend says he should cut down. Adi knows his friend will help him but he has tried to cut down before and it didn’t work. Explain how the theory of planned behaviour could predict the likelihood of Adi cutting down his drinking. (2 marks) AO3 Evaluation (with or without scenario) e.g. Explain, Compare Unit 1 + Unit 3 Compare normative social influence and informational social influence as explanations of conformity. (3 marks) Arwa sells chilli sauces and most of her sales come from the bandwagon effect because people don’t want to ‘miss out’. Arwa is considering running a two-for-one offer. Explain one alternative way to understand how the offer could lead to higher sales of Arwa’s chilli sauces. (3 marks) Extended writing (with or without scenario) e.g. Analyse, Discuss, Assess, Evaluate Unit 1 + Unit 3 Discuss how the cognitive approach can help us to understand aggression. (9 marks) Mia identifies as a girl. She won a school prize for creative writing. Mia’s dad praises her for helping her brother with homework. But he wasn’t so keen on Mia playing rugby. Mia follows several beauty influencers online. Assess how the behaviourist and/or social learning approaches can be used to understand Mia’s gender. (9 marks) Will is a single father and has a demanding job. He can’t always get child care and never feels on top of his work. He has no time to relax or to see friends. Will feels so stressed he cannot cope and has been to see his doctor. Evaluate one talking therapy that could help Will reduce his stress levels. (6 marks) The Unit 1 exam Unit 1 (Psychological Approaches and Applications) is externally assessed by one exam. You will be awarded a mark for the whole paper, which will contribute to your grade of Distinction (D), Merit (M), Pass (P), Near Pass (N) or Unclassified (U). The exam is 1 hour 30 minutes long and the total number of marks available is 72. The paper is divided into three sections (Section A, B and C), each worth 24 marks. Each section contains material from both content areas A and B. The Unit 3 exam Unit 3 (Health Psychology) is externally assessed by one exam. Again, you will be awarded a mark for the whole paper, which will contribute to your grade of Distinction (D), Merit (M), Pass (P), Near Pass (NP) or Unclassified (U). The exam is two hours long and the total number of marks available is 70. The paper is divided into three sections (Section A, B and C), with 20 marks for Section A, 20 marks for Section B and 30 marks for Section C. Each section may contain material from all content areas A, B and C. The ‘Apply it’ boxes throughout this book contain questions to help you practise all your skills, especially application. These are exam-type questions, very much like the real thing. They include scenarios because the majority of exam questions are scenario-based. Apply it Please note: The advice, answers and comments given here are not from the exam board but are our interpretation of ‘the rules of the game’. 4 Copyright: Sample material

Introduction Exam advice What to do for a distinction If you could go into the exam with all of your textbooks, you might not get top marks. ‘How can that be?’, we hear you ask. It’s because exams are not just about knowing a set of facts – you also have to explain these facts and organise them in a meaningful way. It’s not just what you know, but how you use your knowledge. Effective description (AO1) If a description question starts with the word Identify, State or Give and is worth 1 mark, then all you have to do is provide a brief answer. Accurate knowledge is all you need for a good answer – you get 1 mark for accuracy, or zero marks if inaccurate. Questions that start with Describe or Explain require more (and are worth more marks). They need development, they require you to demonstrate you understand, possibly by giving an example. For example (see what we did there?): Question: State what is meant by the term ‘schema’. (1 mark) Answer: A schema is a mental packet of beliefs and expectations. Question: Explain what is meant by the term ‘schema’. (2 marks) Answer: A schema is a mental packet of beliefs and expectations. For example, you have a schema for trains which includes what they look like, what they are for and what happens when you want to get on or off. Effective application (AO2) Questions with a scenario test your understanding because you have to use the information you have learned to explain something new. You can only do that if you understand the concepts. Almost every sentence of your answer should be related to both the scenario and the theory/concept you are using. Effective evaluation (AO3) For effective evaluation you should do at least two of the following three things (the PET rule): • Point – state the point you wish to make (strength or weakness). • Explain/Elaborate/provide Evidence – give some substance to support the point you are making. • This suggests that… / Therefore… / This means… – end with a mini-conclusion. What does the point tell us? We have made every evaluation point in this book PET-friendly. Effective structure Examiners are human so you need to help them award you marks. You can do this by organising your answer clearly. For example, make sure sentences follow logically from each other, use paragraphs, finish one point before going on to the next. Less is more Try to cover fewer points but, with each one, provide detail, explanation, examples, etc. Don’t write everything you know and hope the sheer volume of facts will impress the examiner. They need to know that you understand it. … it’s how you use it. We’ve included some top tips to boost your revision, based on the advice on these Introduction spreads. There’s a booster on almost every spread, so there’s always something new for you to try. REVISION BOOSTERS Preparing for the exam You will sit external exams on the topics in Units 1 and 3. Exams mean revising, but the secret is that revising should happen now. Start revising as you go along. We have divided this book into spreads. Each spread represents one ‘chunk’ of the specification, shown at the top left of the spread. Context is king When you make a point of evaluation, make sure it applies to the concept, theory or scenario in the question. If your point could apply to any concept, theory or scenario, then it is a weak point. 5 Copyright: Sample material

Question ‘rules’ to consider One / Two Give one assumption of the cognitive approach. (1 mark) Explain two reasons for Theo’s aggression. (4 marks) You must write about the exact number of ‘things’ in the question, otherwise you’ll lose marks or waste time. Evaluate / Assess These are special terms because they require you to come to a conclusion (e.g. make a judgement about something). Analyse, Discuss and Compare do not require a conclusion. Compare Psychologists believe there are different types of conformity. Compare two types of conformity. (3 marks) When comparing two things, your answer must include both a similarity and a difference. You also need to bring the ‘things’ together (e.g. types of conformity) and not treat them separately (see the next spread for an example). Examples / Types / Factors / Ways / Reasons / Effects Any of these could appear in a question, so it’s important you know what they are. Note that a question can tell you to include an example. But even if it doesn’t, it’s still often a good idea to do so. Consider Evaluate the extent to which the biological approach can explain Theo’s aggression. In your answer you should consider the roles of genetics and evolution. (9 marks) The question may help you by giving a prompt about what to include. But that means you must include it. Command terms This is a selected list of the words that tell you how to answer questions. Name Recall a feature or characteristic using correct terms. Describe Give an account in which sentences are developed from each other (linked). Justification (reasons why) is not required (unlike Explain below). Explain Sentences should be linked to provide an element of reasoning. Reasoning involves justifying a point or example (e.g. saying why). Justify Give reasons/evidence to support a statement. Discuss Identify and explore all aspects of the issue/situation, with reasoning/argument (conclusion not needed). Evaluate Consider various aspects of a subject’s qualities in relation to its context, such as strengths or weaknesses. Come to a judgement (conclusion), supported by evidence. Introduction Exam advice Nailed it. Timing Timing is always important in exams because it is a fixed amount. You must spend enough time on each answer in relation to the marks – not too much otherwise you won’t give full enough answers to other questions. How long should you spend on each question? For both Units 1 and 3, a very rough (but useful) rule of thumb is ‘one minute per mark’, bearing in mind you have to read and think as well as write. How much should you write? Of course, there is no firm answer to this question. But here is a (very) rough guide. A 9-mark extended open-response answer should be between 320 and 360 words and take about 13–15 minutes. A 6-mark answer should be between 200 and 220 words and take about 8–10 minutes. Some lower-mark questions can be answered quickly. You don’t have to, but you could ‘bank’ time to spend on the higher-mark questions. But remember the thing that really matters – the quality of your answer is always more important than how many words you write. Have confidence! Self-efficacy is covered in Unit 3 (see page 94). The research shows that when you believe in your abilities, you expect to do well and often this will boost your performance (just don’t get overconfident!). Have things around you which remind you of your successes. Before the exam, remind yourself how much studying you have done and again think of your successes. Raise your self-efficacy. 6 Copyright: Sample material

Introduction Revision advice Right on cue There are snooker cues and there are other cues – a cue is a thing that serves as a reminder of something else. Actors know they must come in on cue – a reminder or signal. Psychologists have investigated the value of cues in remembering. They act as a reminder of what else you know. In the revision card on the far left the key words in the first column can serve as a cue to remember the contents in the second column, which in turn can trigger more information you have stored in memory. Active revision Our memories evolved to store important information and not waste time on unimportant information. Therefore, you have to do something to make the information more meaningful. Compose a song using the key words and sing it. Have a debate on the topic with friends. Make up a quiz for your friend. Anything more active than just making notes. Five steps to e ective revision Step 1: Construct revision cards For every spread you study, create a card for revision (if you wish, you can create more than one card, e.g. where there are two obvious topics on the spread). On the card draw a table with two columns: • Column 1 = cue word(s). • Column 2 = a small amount of text to remind you of important information. The great thing about using these cards is: • You reduce what you have to memorise (just the cues). The rest is engraved in your memory through practice. • If you keep making these cards throughout your course, you will have them all ready for revision. Description Evaluation Step 2: Check your cues work Cover the right-hand column on your revision card and, for each cue, write down what you can recall from the right-hand side. Then check how much you remembered. Maybe you need to add a word or two to your cue to help you? Step 3: Test your recall again Repeat step 2 and see if you remember more this time. Step 4: Test memory of cues See if you can just recall the list of cues. In the exam all you need to remember is the cues and then the rest should be available to you. Psychological research shows that cues are the best way to enhance recall, and also that testing enhances memory. Step 5: Practise writing timed answers There is no substitute for practising what you will have to do in the exams – writing answers in timed conditions without your cue cards. Practice is especially important because answering questions isn’t just about recalling knowledge. You need to practise applying your knowledge and understanding to scenarios. This revision guide contains a wide variety of exam-type questions you can use. 7 Pr ct ca u e – s lf-r po t Pe pl a e xpe t o ev n s a d h s l s s a k t em, va i me sr . Re r sp ct ve r ca l Reca l ve t / h s l s €r m pa t, col be i accu t , u d r s ima e h l impact . TopicLi€e ve t Cue Description Big ev n s e.g. ma r ge. No ev ryd y ev n s. Requ r psych l gica dju tme . Ho me a d R h 1960s d ve op d t e SRRS. SRRS 43 ev n s. Ad up LCUs. Divo ce = 73 LCUs. Il n s Mo e l k y t e mo LCUs. Copyright: Sample material

Example questions and answers Marker’s comments Unit 1: Tahlia wants to buy some wireless earphones but she doesn’t know which ones are best. She saw an advert for Airbuds which showed lots of happy people enjoying the product. But Tahlia has noticed that the music students in the college seem to prefer Earpods. Explain how social proof might influence Tahlia’s decision on the earphones she will buy. (2 marks) Answer: Tahlia is unsure so she looks to others for guidance about which earphones to buy. Music students have more knowledge about music than the average, so Tahlia will trust their opinions and buy Earpods. Comments: The first sentence shows correct understanding of social proof, related to the scenario. The second sentence is a linked explanation of how this affects Tahlia’s decision. 2 marks. Unit 1: There are several different approaches in psychology. They differ in terms of how they explain behaviour. Compare the biological approach with one alternative approach in psychology. (3 marks) Answer: One alternative is the cognitive approach. A similarity is both approaches look at how activity in the mind/brain affects behaviour. Both approaches also use brain scanning methods to investigate what is going on in the mind or brain. Comments: The student gets 1 mark just for identifying an alternative approach. The ‘rule’ for a Compare question is that the answer should include both a similarity and a difference. But the student has given two similarities. Both of them are appropriate but only one can gain the second mark. Because the answer does not include a difference, it cannot get the third mark. This is a non-scenario question, so no application is needed. The marks are for evaluation/AO3. 2 marks. Unit 3: Rajul knows she is addicted to smoking. Her friends have pointed out that she might get lung cancer or heart disease. Rajul knows she is at risk and would like to stop. Her friends have bought her nicotine patches but she doesn’t use them and hasn’t done anything else to give up. Rajul seems to believe she is powerless to change her own behaviour. Her attitude is one of, ‘Whatever will be will be, there’s nothing I can do about it.’ Explain how Rajul having an external locus of control affects the likelihood of her giving up smoking. (2 marks) Answer: Rajul believes she is powerless and that her smoking is determined by external factors outside her control. Therefore, she does not believe she can do anything to give up smoking, which is why she didn’t use the nicotine patches. Comments: The student gets 1 mark for identifying a feature of external LoC in Rajul. The second mark is for applying this to Rajul’s chances of giving up smoking. This is done well and even uses a specific example from the scenario. The key words in the answer are ‘she does not believe’ because this shows the link between external LoC and behaviour. It is not enough to say ‘Therefore, she will not give up smoking.’ 2 marks. Unit 3: Noah has an early memory of his parents having a party where lots of people were smoking. As a teenager his group of friends all smoked. He watched carefully how they did it. Everyone cheered when Noah smoked his first cigarette. That was when he really became part of the group and he’s still friends with most of them. Now he is trying to give up and hasn’t smoked for two days. He is keeping his lighter in his pocket ‘for good luck’. Explain one way in which learning may play a role in the initiation of Noah’s smoking addiction. (2 marks) Answer: A smoking addiction like in Noah can be started by social learning such as vicarious reinforcement. A child might see someone else smoking so this person is a role model (could be a parent). The child feels the model’s pleasure from smoking so they imitate it and believe they will get the same experience and rewards from doing it. Comments: The student has given a generic answer with no application to Noah at all. So although the answer is ‘correct’ (and quite detailed for 2 marks), it is not appropriate because it completely ignores all the useful information in the scenario. This is a pity because the answer only has to have some context somewhere (although more than just Noah’s name). 0 marks. Introduction Assessment advice 8 Copyright: Sample material

Introduction Assessment advice Example questions and answers Marker’s comments Unit 3: The UK government devises a campaign to encourage people to exercise more, called ‘Let’s Get Britain Moving’. As part of this, a TV advert is filmed which is fronted by a major sports celebrity who has also been a fashion model. The advert points out the dangers of being inactive and the benefits of exercise. Ellis watches the advert and realises that they could improve their health by exercising more. But they worry that they don’t have the time or motivation. Assess the effectiveness of the Hovland-Yale theory in predicting whether Ellis will be persuaded to exercise more. (9 marks) Answer: The Hovland-Yale theory predicts whether Ellis will exercise more depending on three aspects of the campaign. First, the source of the campaign’s message. A person will be persuaded to change their behaviour if the source has credibility and attractiveness. The source in the advert is a sports celebrity, who is credible because they are an ‘expert’ on physical activity. They have personal experience of being fit. They were also a fashion model so they probably are physically attractive. Because of the halo effect, Ellis might believe the celebrity is also knowledgeable about exercise. Second, the message itself. The message will be persuasive if it has emotional appeal for Ellis. It has a fear threat because it shows the dangers of being inactive. But this is not enough on its own to persuade Ellis. However, the campaign also highlights there is a way to avoid negative outcomes – it can show Ellis how they get positive benefits from exercising. One part of the message may make Ellis afraid, but the other part may relieve their fear, so they are more likely to exercise. Finally, there is the audience, i.e. Ellis themselves. If Ellis is an intelligent person, they may feel they are being manipulated by the campaign and resist changing their behaviour. On the other hand, as Ellis is aware they are lacking fitness, perhaps they have low self-esteem. People with low self-esteem are easier to persuade so Ellis may be more likely to exercise. However, some research shows that people with high self-esteem are easier to persuade but just less willing to admit to being persuaded. This means the theory makes the wrong prediction about Ellis’s behaviour. Also, the theory may well predict that Ellis will become more positive about the idea of exercise. But changing Ellis’s attitude may not be enough to change their actual behaviour. Therefore, the theory cannot predict that Ellis will exercise because it is only describing the factors that contribute to their attitude. In conclusion, the model could be effective in predicting that Ellis will exercise because two of the three aspects of the campaign are favourable. But this may just mean Ellis has a more positive attitude towards exercise, without actually doing any. 368 words Comments: A very important rule of 9-mark extended open-response questions is that there are 3 marks for AO1, 3 for AO2 and 3 for AO3. So, the answer has to include a balance of description, application and evaluation, even though the command term is AO3. The student’s knowledge and understanding of the theory are accurate and thorough. Description is fairly detailed and has some depth. The answer covers all three factors in the theory rather than leaving one out. At almost every point in the answer, the theory is applied to Ellis. The focus is on predicting Ellis’s behaviour and whether the theory is able to do this. But there are vague elements too, e.g. ‘A person will be persuaded to change their behaviour…’ instead of ‘Ellis will be persuaded to exercise…’. The student has given two weaknesses of the theory which are both appropriate but neither is developed in much detail. The command term is Assess so the student has drawn a conclusion. It is slightly repetitive of the previous point but otherwise a balanced judgement and applied to Ellis. Overall, this is a very good answer. The reason it does not get full marks is because each skill could have been just a little bit more developed, especially the evaluative element (e.g. ‘…the theory makes the wrong prediction’ is a bit vague). Looking at the table below, the AO1 in this answer is bottom of level 3, the AO2 is middle of level 3 and the AO3 is top of level 2. So overall, bottom of level 3 = 7 marks. Level Mark Knowledge and understanding Gaps or omissions Points are relevant to the context of the question Links made to context Discussion/ analysis/ assessment/ evaluation Considers different aspects and how they interrelate 1 1–3 Isolated elements. Major. Few. Minimal. Limited. Generic assertions. 2 4–6 Some accurate. Minor. Some. Not clear. Partiallydeveloped. Some, but not always in a sustained way. 3 7–9 Mostly accurate and detailed. None. Most. Clear. Welldeveloped. A range, in a sustained way. This is called a levels-based mark scheme because an examiner decides on your mark by determining the level that best describes your answer. The criteria in this table are adapted from the exam board’s marking guidance. 9 Copyright: Sample material

Get organised! This is a great topic for making sure your revision notes are organised. You’ve got four approaches and two assumptions for each approach. A revision table is a perfect way to arrange your notes. REVISION BOOSTER In a meeting of a company’s management team, the chief executive explains her plan to save the company from closing down. The other managers show signs of agreement, nodding their heads, saying ‘yes, that’s right’ and making approving noises. But Shana doesn’t think the plan is a good idea, so she keeps very quiet. Referring to an example from the scenario, explain one key assumption from the social approach. (2 marks) Apply it Comparing the brain to a computer is a key assumption of the cognitive approach. SPEC SPOTLIGHT A1 Cognitive approach: • Behaviour is a product of information processing. • The brain can be compared to a computer (computer analogy) – input, processing and output. A2 Social approach: • Behaviour occurs in a social context (influenced by people around us). • Wider culture and society influence people’s behaviour. Assumptions of the cognitive approach Behaviour is a product of information processing ‘Cognitive’ means related to thinking/mental processes. We are information processors – internal mental processes (e.g. reasoning, remembering) work together so we make sense of the world. A model (theory) explains how information from the environment is processed at each stage. Processes work together. E.g. you see a dog: you notice it (perception), focus on it (attention), recognise it (memory), name it (language). The brain can be compared to a computer Computers process information so the mind is compared to a computer. In both cases there are three stages: • Information goes in (input). • It is changed and/or stored (processing). • It is used to respond to the environment (output). The brain is the central processing unit (‘hardware’) which codes information, changing it from one format to another (‘software’). This approach contributes to the development of artificial intelligence (AI). Assumptions of the social approach Behaviour occurs in a social context ‘Social’ means other members of your species, who influence our behaviour because humans are ‘social animals’. E.g. conformity: you ‘go along’ with friends even if you disagree with them so you are not the odd one out. So, social context (your friends) affects behaviour. Social pressure is so powerful we just have to think about how others behave, they do not have to be present. Social interaction may influence behaviour more than an individual’s disposition (their personality). Wider culture and society influence people’s behaviour Behaviour can be understood/explained in terms of two broad types of culture: • Individualist cultures (e.g. UK and USA) – focus is on an individual’s needs, where each person should achieve their potential and pursue their own goals (e.g. in a relationship, partners’ happiness and ‘being in love’ matter). • Collectivist cultures (e.g. China and India) – priority is the needs of the family and community before the individual (e.g. in a relationship what matters is family approval, being ‘in love’ is less important). Assumptions of the four approaches A1: Approaches and assumptions AO1 Description Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Content area A 10 Copyright: Sample material

Larry organised a cake sale for Children in Need. He distributed flyers, with images of cakes and other sweet goodies. When people turned up, he gave them a free cake and cup of tea. He put on a demonstration of cake-making for people who had never baked. Larry sold lots of cakes and raised lots of money. Referring to an example from the scenario, explain one key assumption from the behaviourist/social learning approaches. (2 marks) Apply it Imitation of other people’s behaviour is one way children learn. Assumptions of the four approaches A1: Approaches and assumptions SPEC SPOTLIGHT A3 Behaviourist and social learning approaches: • Behaviour is a learned response to environmental stimuli. • Behaviour can be learned from observation and imitation. A4 Biological approach: • Behaviour is influenced by central nervous system (CNS), genes and neurochemistry. • Behaviour is a product of evolution. Assumptions of the behaviourist and social learning approaches Behaviour is a learned response to environmental stimuli Things in the environment bring about learning. If you touch a hot pan, you are hurt and learn not to do it again. If you smile when you ask a favour, you get what you want and learn to do it again. There are two main forms of learning: Classical conditioning Learning by association (Pavlov) – dogs salivated when they heard a door open because they associated noise of the door with food. Operant conditioning Learning by consequences (Skinner) – if a behaviour produces a pleasurable consequence (reward) it will be repeated. The environment reinforces (strengthens) the behaviour. Behaviour can be learned from observation and imitation Learning can occur through observation/ imitation of other people’s behaviour (Bandura). E.g. child observes parents’/carers’ behaviour (role models) and imitates it if they see behaviour rewarded (with praise, money, etc.). This is vicarious reinforcement (i.e. the model’s behaviour is rewarded, not the child’s). Assumptions of the biological approach Behaviour is influenced by central nervous system (CNS), genes and neurochemistry Everything psychological is firstly biological, so behaviours, thoughts, feelings have a physical basis. Central nervous system (CNS) Consists of the brain and spinal cord, the body’s control centre. Different areas of the brain perform different functions (e.g. language, aggression). Damage to the brain/CNS seriously affects these functions. Genes ‘Units’ of DNA (inherited from parents) interact with environment. Many behaviours are passed down generations. Neurochemistry Brain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, etc.) affect behaviour (e.g. dopamine is disrupted in schizophrenia). Behaviour is a product of evolution Genetically-determined behaviours that are successful continue into future generations (= natural selection, Darwin). Behaviours and characteristics enhancing an individual’s chances of survival and reproduction are selected. E.g. someone with good hunting skills is more likely to thrive and survive (they have food to eat). So they are more likely to reproduce successfully. Their skills (e.g. fast reactions) are passed onto offspring. AO1 Description 11 Copyright: Sample material

AO1 Description Nikita was daydreaming again. Her friend said to her, ‘Did you hear what I just said?’ Nikita immediately replied, ‘Yes, you said something about going out tonight.’ 1. Name the memory store that allowed Nikita to give this reply. (1 mark) Later that day, Nikita heard a song on the radio that she liked. The presenter said the title of the song and the name of the band. Nikita thought, ‘I must make a note of that on my phone.’ But by the time she found her phone, she could only remember the name of the band. 2. Using your knowledge of shortterm memory, explain one reason why Nikita could not remember all of the information. (2 marks) The name of the band was ‘The Cars’. But when Nikita recalled the name the next day, she thought it was ‘The Motors’. 3. Using your knowledge of encoding in long-term memory, explain why Nikita made this error. (2 marks) 4. Discuss one characteristic of Nikita’s memory. (3 marks) Apply it Ear is echoic memory. Eye is iconic memory. SPEC SPOTLIGHT Characteristics of sensory, shortterm, and long-term memory (encoding, capacity, duration). Key concept 1: Characteristics of three memory stores A1: Cognitive approach Duration Sensory memory (SM) All stimuli pass into SM, which is made up of five stores, one for each sense, e.g.: • Iconic memory – visual stimuli last less than 0.5s. • Echoic memory – auditory (sound) stimuli last 2–4s. Short-term memory (STM) Temporary memory store lasts up to 30s (Peterson and Peterson). Maintenance rehearsal increases duration and information may then pass into LTM. Long-term memory (LTM) Potentially permanent store for rehearsed material (lifetime). E.g. recognising names/faces after 50 years (Bahrick et al.). Capacity Sensory memory Very high capacity, e.g. over one hundred million cells in each retina (eye) with each cell storing visual data. Short-term memory Limited-capacity store, between five and nine items (‘magic number 7 ± 2’, Miller). Long-term memory Practically unlimited, LTM stores everything we learn so forgetting is due to lack of appropriate retrieval cues. Encoding Sensory memory All stores convert information into a form that can be stored. SM has different forms of encoding depending on the sensory store, e.g.: • Visual encoding in iconic store. • Acoustic (sound) encoding in echoic store. Short-term memory Uses mainly acoustic encoding (sounds of words). Baddeley’s study Participants learned lists of words and recalled them immediately (STM). Errors were based on mixing up sounds (e.g. recalling ‘cat’ instead of ‘cap’), therefore acoustic. Long-term memory Uses mainly semantic encoding (meaning of words). Baddeley’s study Participants learned lists of words and recalled them after 20 minutes (LTM). Errors were based on mixing up meanings (e.g. recalling ‘big’ instead of ‘large’), therefore semantic. Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Content area A 12 Copyright: Sample material

AO3 Evaluation Lena is a junior doctor in a hospital A&E department. Recently a patient was admitted by ambulance and a paramedic handed him over with these words: ‘This is Sam, 25-year-old male, respiratory rate is 18, heart rate is 130, blood pressure 115 over 65, temperature 36.9, oxygen sats 96%, Coma Scale score is 13, administered 10 mg morphine 15 minutes ago.’ Lena repeated this information over and over to herself until she started treating Sam. Lena forgot Sam’s blood pressure but a nurse was able to remind her. Lena thought the morphine was administered 50 minutes ago. 1. Identify the memory store that Lena was using to remember the handover information. (1 mark) 2. Explain one reason why Lena forgot some of the information. (2 marks) 3. Explain one reason why Lena thought the paramedic said ‘50 minutes’ rather than ‘15 minutes’. (2 marks) 4. Describe one way in which the scenario illustrates the duration of Lena’s short-term memory. (2 marks) Apply it This topic is a goldmine of practical ways to improve your memory. The key for a student revising for exams is to improve long-term memory. The real skill, however, is not so much getting information into memory, but getting it out. We’ll have a lot more to say about this in later boosters. For now, bear in mind that longterm memory can be improved by organising the material you want to learn. For instance, use plenty of headings and bullet points at different levels. Organising material forces you to think about it more deeply, which is much better than simply reading or copying. REVISION BOOSTER What do Nelson Mandela and a sensory memory store have in common? That’s right, they’re both iconic. Key concept 1: Characteristics of three memory stores A1: Cognitive approach One strength is that knowledge of memory stores has practical applications. For example, researchers have found that a technique called ‘chunking’ increases the capacity of STM. 15 letters is more than double the average STM capacity, e.g. C A R D O G L I T P E N B U Y. But these letters can be reorganised into: CAR DOG LIT PEN BUY, which is five bigger items (‘chunks’), well within most people’s STM capacity. This shows how understanding the characteristics of memory stores can help to improve memory. Another strength is evidence of memory stores with di erent characteristics. For instance, one characteristic of memory stores is their duration. Information in the iconic store (vision) lasts for about 50 milliseconds (Sperling), in STM up to about 30 seconds (Peterson and Peterson) and in LTM up to a lifetime (Bahrick et al.). Therefore SM, STM and LTM must be separate memory stores because they differ so much in duration (and also encoding and capacity). One weakness is that a lot of research is not typical of everyday memory. Participants in studies often have to remember letters, digits and consonant syllables which have no meaning, e.g. ‘YCG’ in Peterson and Peterson’s study. But memories in everyday life are about useful things (faces, facts, places, etc.), much more meaningful than materials used in many studies. This means that the different characteristics of the memory stores may not be so clear when we use our memories in everyday life. 13 Copyright: Sample material

AO1 Description Vash is listening to Popmaster on the radio. He often can’t think of the answers, but when he hears them he thinks, ‘Of course, I remember that song now.’ 1. Identify the type of remembering that Vash is experiencing. (1 mark) Vash is doing a multiple-choice test at college. He says to his friends, ‘Multiple-choice questions are a lot easier than normal exam questions where you have to come up with the answers.’ 2. With reference to Vash’s comment, explain one difference between recognition and recall. (2 marks) Vash has a new technique to help him revise. He writes notes in a table on a card. Each row of the table starts with a couple of key words, followed by more information. He then tries to remember the key words. Vash’s exam results have improved since he started revising like this. 3. Explain how Vash’s revision technique has improved his exam results. (2 marks) 4. Discuss the importance of cues in Vash’s experience of remembering his college work. (3 marks) Apply it It’s usually much easier to recognise someone than to recall their name. SPEC SPOTLIGHT Remembering (recognition, recall and the importance of cues). Key concept 2: Remembering A1: Cognitive approach Recall Free recall Retrieval from a memory store without ‘assistance’. E.g. in a research study you read a list of words, put it to one side and write down all the words you remember. Cued recall Retrieval from memory with assistance from a cue (‘trigger’). E.g. in a research study you read a list of words, put it to one side and are told the first letter of each word. We have more in memory than we think and can recall ‘forgotten’ information when triggered by the right cue. Recognition Recognition memory When we remember something because we have encountered it before. E.g. you know someone’s name when you hear it. E.g. in a multiple-choice question with answers, you know the correct one when you see it. This shows we store more in LTM than we can access through free recall. Cues Meaningful cues The cue is directly relevant to the material we want to remember. E.g. the cue is ‘STM’ – ‘S’ cues retrieval of ‘short’, the word ‘short’ cues retrieval of other meaningful material (duration, capacity, etc.). Cues without meaning The cue is not directly relevant to the material but occurs at the same time we learn it. E.g. a random event such as a thunderstorm happens at the same time you learn something about STM. When a storm happens again, it might cue recall of information about STM. Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Content area A 14 Copyright: Sample material

AO3 Evaluation A psychologist is training Lena and other junior doctors in how to improve their memories to better retain handover information (see previous spread). The doctors role-play a handover in pairs. Lena is given some information and 2 minutes later she correctly remembers the patient’s blood pressure. She cannot remember the patient’s heart rate, but when her partner tells her, Lena says, ‘Oh yes, I remember that now.’ The psychologist says that memory can be improved by using cues. 1. Identify one example of recognition and one example of recall from the scenario. (2 marks) 2. Explain one reason why Lena was able to recognise some information but not recall it. (2 marks) 3. Describe two ways Lena could use cues to improve her memory. (4 marks) 4. Discuss the importance of cues in Lena’s remembering of handover information. (3 marks) Apply it Vash (see Apply it on facing page) is definitely onto something. Cues are your gateway to memory improvement. Use cue words to trigger your memory of other words. There are lots of ways to do this. Here’s one suggestion (more later): • Actively read a page of notes – that is, highlight or circle the key terms, concepts, theories, etc. as you go. • Write each of these (just one or two words) on the back of a post-it note (or card). • On the front of the post-it/card, write a question to which the answer is the word or two on the back. • Stick the post-it notes up, choose one and have a go at answering the question. REVISION BOOSTER A mnemonic for guitar strings: Every Adult Dog Growls Barks Eats. Well, they do when I’m playing. Key concept 2: Remembering A1: Cognitive approach One strength is practical applications of retrieval cues. Mnemonics are memory aids based on psychological knowledge that use cues to trigger retrieval of information from long-term memory. E.g. BIDMAS (where each letter stands for one maths operator) reminds you of the order of operations, ‘Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain’ helps retrieve the colours of the rainbow. This shows how understanding the role of cues can help us to improve memory. Another strength is support for cues from many research studies. Participants learned and remembered lists of words from categories (animals, clothing, etc.). Some participants were given headings as cues, others not (Tulving and Pearlstone). When they had to recall the lists, participants who were given cues remembered significantly more words than participants without cues. This finding shows that cues are important in retrieving memories that would otherwise be ‘forgotten’, and also that cued recall is superior to free recall. One weakness is some cues are not important in everyday remembering. The environment in which you learn (e.g. classroom) provides some context-related cues to retrieve information later (e.g. physical layout, background noises, smells). But context-related cues are not as powerful in everyday life as meaningful cues (e.g. BIDMAS), because environments at learning and retrieval are usually different (e.g. classroom and exam room). Therefore, not all cues are equally important and some are relatively useless in everyday situations. 15 Copyright: Sample material

AO1 Description SPEC SPOTLIGHT Reconstructive memory, including the role of schema (shortening, rationalisation and confabulation). Finn is a teacher. He watches a recording of the interview for his job from the previous month. Finn thinks to himself, ‘I thought they asked me about coursework marking but there’s nothing in this recording about that.’ 1. Using one concept from reconstructive memory, explain why Finn remembered being asked about coursework marking. (3 marks) Amber was on her way home from school when she saw a robbery. She told the police it was a betting shop that was robbed but other witnesses said it was a jewellers. 2. Explain one way that reconstructive memory can help us understand what Amber remembers about the robbery. (3 marks) 3. One feature of reconstructive memory is shortening. Explain how Amber’s recall of the robbery might demonstrate shortening. (2 marks) 4. Referring to Amber’s experience, discuss the view that memory is reconstructive. (3 marks) Apply it A video recorder. Ancient technology. Not how memory works. Key concept 3: Reconstructive memory A1: Cognitive approach What is reconstructive memory? Memories are not reproductions (Bartlett) Memories are reconstructions and we retrieve memories by rebuilding them again. • Memory does not record events like a video recorder. • We store fragments of information and to recall them we build (reconstruct) them into a meaningful whole. • So, memory is not always a totally accurate record of events. Role of schema in memory Schema is a mental structure or ‘package’ Schema contain stored knowledge about the world. E.g. we have a schema for ‘mother’, ‘teacher’, ‘party’, and many many other concepts. Schema develop through personal and shared cultural experience, e.g. what you expect a ‘birthday party’ to include. Schema affect what we store in memory and later retrieve. War of the Ghosts (Bartlett) Participants heard an Inuit folk tale, with concepts that were unfamiliar to them, e.g. ‘canoes’, ‘arrows’. They recalled the story in ways that made it more familiar – to fit existing schema, making it more meaningful and easier to recall. Schema reconstruct memory in three ways 1. Shortening We leave out parts of an event that don’t fit our schema (e.g. unfamiliar details), so the stored and retrieved memory is shorter. Bartlett’s participants did not recall supernatural elements because they were unfamiliar. 2. Rationalisation We recall events in a distorted way so they fit our existing schema (elements of the event did not match schema but now they do and make more sense). Bartlett’s participants replaced unfamiliar words with familiar ones (e.g. ‘guns’ and ‘boat’ instead of ‘arrows’ and ‘canoe’). 3. Confabulation We invent parts of an event to fill in any ‘gaps’, to match schema and make retrieval meaningful (this is not random and not the same as ‘lying’). Bartlett’s participants incorrectly recalled details to make the story more coherent. Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Content area A 16 Copyright: Sample material

AO3 Evaluation Graeme is chatting to his boss Velma about his first day working in the café two years ago. Graeme says, ‘I remember having trouble with the tablet we used to take orders. I didn’t know where anything was, so I had to keep asking Gaby to help me.’ Velma says, ‘But we didn’t use tablets then, we used pen and paper. We’ve never had a Gaby working here.’ 1. Give one example of rationalisation from the scenario. (1 mark) 2. Give one example of confabulation from the scenario. (1 mark) 3. Explain why Graeme’s description of his first day in the café may not have been accurate. Use two concepts from reconstructive memory in your answer. (6 marks) 4. Discuss reconstructive memory as a way of understanding why Graeme’s recall may not have been accurate. (3 marks) Apply it Use mnemonic rhymes. A mnemonic is simply anything that improves memory. An example is putting the concepts you want to remember into unusual sentences. Then you try to make the sentences rhyme. For example, here’s a rhyming mnemonic to link the main concepts on this spread: You reconstruct your memory by schema. I’m not being a dreamer. Schema make memories shorter, By maybe a quarter. Rationalisation makes the memory twisted, It’s schema-assisted. And confabulation fills in the gaps. This isn’t lying or random, and that’s a wrap! REVISION BOOSTER Does this fit your schema for ‘older man’, ‘knitting’ or even ‘punk rocker’? What effect would this have on your recall? A1: Cognitive approach Key concept 3: Reconstructive memory One strength is that reconstructive memory explains problems with EWT. One of these problems is that eyewitness testimony (EWT) in criminal court trials is based solely on what the eyewitness can recall of what they saw or heard. But the person’s recall may be affected by their schema, e.g. seeing someone with a gun and expecting them to be a man. So, people do not always recall events accurately as recall can be affected by expectations of what ‘should’ happen. This means evidence in court is never based on EWT alone as it can be inaccurate, a very important application of this research. Another strength is evidence from Bartlett’s research. Bartlett’s participants did not recall many details of an unfamiliar story (The War of the Ghosts). Instead, they tried to make sense of what they heard before storing it in memory. Recall of the story changed significantly, with evidence of shortening, rationalisation and confabulation, as predicted by reconstructive memory theory. This shows that we reconstruct memories from elements that are influenced by our schema, often making recall inaccurate. One weakness is that recall of some memories can be very accurate. For example, we can often remember the details of situations when they are personally important or unusual. For example, in Bartlett’s research, participants often recalled the phrase, ‘Something black came out of his mouth’ because it was quite unusual (distinctive). This shows that people may not always reconstruct memories, and some memories can be relatively unaffected by schema. 17 Copyright: Sample material

AO1 Description Phoenix saw a vlog on fishing. At the supermarket later, going past the freezers, they suddenly thought, ‘I fancy chips for tea.’ 1. State which type of cognitive priming is demonstrated in this scenario. (1 mark) 2. Explain how this type of cognitive priming can be used to understand Phoenix’s behaviour in the supermarket. (3 marks) Rafi overheard some colleagues talking about their holiday plans. Later on, scrolling through Insta, Rafi immediately noticed someone had posted a video of their holiday in Lanzarote. 3. Explain, using your knowledge of cognitive priming, why Rafi noticed the video so quickly. (3 marks) Coco ordered a coffee at a local café. When she got home, her partner was singing a song. ‘I recognise that. It’s ‘Coffee Shop’ by Red Hot Chilli Peppers.’ Coco’s partner replied, ‘You never normally remember song titles.’ 4. Identify the type of priming experienced by Coco and explain how it accounts for her being able to recall the song title. (4 marks) Apply it These two go together like… SPEC SPOTLIGHT Cognitive priming, including the role of cognitive scripts and different types of priming (repetition, semantic and associative). Key concept 4: Cognitive priming A1: Cognitive approach What is cognitive priming? Priming means ‘preparing’ Seeing or hearing one stimulus (the ‘prime’) affects your response to a later related stimulus (you process it faster). The prime triggers related concepts in memory, so activation is quicker when the second stimulus occurs (examples below). You do not know your response is influenced because priming occurs below your level of awareness. Types of cognitive priming Repetition priming You see/hear the prime. When you see/hear it again later you process it more quickly than you would have done. E.g. you overhear ‘avocado’ (the prime). You are now ‘primed’ to notice (process) it more quickly if you hear/see the word again later (or see an actual avocado). Semantic priming You see/hear the prime. When you later see/hear a stimulus similar in meaning you process the later stimulus faster. E.g. you see/hear ‘computer’ (the prime). You are now primed to notice (recognise or recall) semantically similar words (e.g. you process ‘laptop’ faster because it has a similar meaning). Associative priming You see/hear the prime. When you later see/hear a stimulus that is often associated with the prime, you process the later stimulus faster. E.g. you hear the word ‘fish’. You are now primed to notice (recognise or recall) anything usually paired with this in memory. In our culture this is likely to be ‘chips’. An example of how cognitive priming works Cognitive priming is ‘mentally setting you up in advance to behave in a certain way’, which could explain the influence of adverts. E.g. you watch a TV advert that shows snacking as fun, which primes you (in advance) to associate snacks with something positive. You then eat a lot of snacks. This was the experimental group in a study by Harris et al. They compared a group of students primed by ‘snacking’ adverts with a group of students who did not see adverts or who saw non-food-related adverts. Students primed by adverts ate more snacks than students not primed by adverts. Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Content area A 18 Copyright: Sample material