Pearson BTEC National Applied Psychology: Book 1 Revised Edition

National Certificate in Applied Psychology BTEC Level 3 Structure of the quali cation Unit Unit title Type How assessed GLH Guided learning hours TQT Total quali cation time (an estimate of the total amount of time to complete and show achievement for the quali cation) 1 Psychological approaches and applications Mandatory External exam 1.5 hours 72 marks 90 235 hours This means: Unit 1: 90 GLH + about 25 hours revising and taking the exam. Unit 2: 90 GLH + about 30 hours writing three reports and conducting the pilot study. 2 Conducting psychological research Mandatory and synoptic Internal 90 Introduction How to use this book 4 What is psychology? 6 Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications 8 Content area A: Key psychological approaches, their assumptions and concepts 10 Revision summary 52 Multiple-choice questions 54 Assessment and revision guidance, Practice questions, answers and feedback 58–63 Content area B: Application of psychological approaches 64 Revision summary 88 Multiple-choice questions 90 Assessment and revision guidance, Practice questions, answers and feedback 92–95 Unit 2 Conducting psychological research 96 Learning aim A: Understand research methods and their importance in psychological inquiry 98 Assessment guidance 116 Learning aim B: Plan research to investigate psychological questions 118 Assessment guidance 132 Learning aim C: Carry out a pilot study to explore current issues in psychology 134 Learning aim D: Review implications of research into psychological inquiry 142 Assessment guidance 144 Index with glossary 146 References A full set of references is available for download from the Illuminate Publishing website. Please visit Contents 3 Copyright: Sample material

Revision summary Content area A Cognitive approach Key concept 1: Characteristics of three memory stores Evaluation Duration – SM = Very brief. STM = up to 30 seconds. LTM = up to a lifetime. Capacity – SM = very high. STM = 7 ± 2 items. LTM = unlimited. Encoding – SM = sense-dependent. STM = acoustic. LTM = semantic. Practical applications Increase STM capacity through chunking (e.g. phone numbers). Research support STM duration (Peterson and Peterson 1959), LTM duration (Bahrick et al. 1975). Issues with research Research uses artiˆcial materials, unlike in everyday life. Key concept 2: Remembering Evaluation Recall Retrieve from memory: • Free recall – with no ‘help’. • Cued recall – with help from a cue. Recognition Remembering something when we’ve encountered it before (e.g. multiple choice). Cues Triggers to assist memory, meaningful (e.g. ‘STM’) or meaningless (e.g. context). Practical applications Mnemonics are based on cues (e.g. BIDMAS triggers recall of maths operators in LTM). Research support Category headings acted as cues, improved recall (Tulving and Pearlstone 1966). Cues not always useful Context cues (e.g. exam room) not as powerful as meaningful cues. Key concept 3: Reconstructive memory Evaluation What is it? Memories reconstructed from fragments into meaningful whole. Role of schema Mental package of knowledge: • Shortening – parts of memory cut to ˆt schema. • Rationalisation – details distorted to ˆt schema. • Confabulation – details made up to ˆll gaps. Practical applications Eyewitnesses not always accurate, due to schema. Research support War of the Ghosts story changed in line with schema (Bartlett 1932). Some memories are accurate Personally important or distinctive details are remembered. Key concept 4: Cognitive priming Evaluation What is it? Experience of one stimulus (prime) affects response to later stimulus (process it faster). Types of cognitive priming: • Repetition – later stimulus identical to prime. • Semantic – later stimulus related in meaning to prime. • Associative – later stimulus associated with prime but not in meaning. Practical applications Prevent priming inšuence of TV snack adverts, promote healthy eating and prevent obesity. Research support Playing violent video games, easier recall of aggressive scripts (Möller and Krahé 2009). Lack of replication Repeating priming studies gives different ˆndings, unscientiˆc concept. Key concept 5: The role of cognitive scripts Evaluation What are memory scripts? Knowledge of how social situations ‘play out’ (e.g. restaurant). Features E.g. scenes ordered by time, evolve with experience, inšuence memory. What is person perception? How we categorise individuals into ‘types’. How it works Gaps in knowledge of someone ˆlled in from memory, even if wrong (e.g. stereotypes, biases). Practical applications Be more accurate by taking time to judge, resist stereotyping. Research support We recall events in correct order when consistent with script in memory (Bower et al. 1979). Cannot explain all behaviour Other reasons for behaving in script-consistent ways (e.g. imitation of others). Key concept 6: Cognitive biases Evaluation What are they? Errors in information processing, undermine decision-making but speed it up. Fundamental attribution error (FAE) Explaining other people’s behaviour due to personality not situation. Conƒrmation bias We notice, store, recall information that conˆrms existing beliefs. Hostile attribution bias (HAB) Neutral behaviour seen as threatening, aggressive response. Practical applications Overcome conˆrmation bias by seeking out contradictory information (critical thinking), helps reduce conšict. Research support People with HAB behave aggressively, increases HAB further (Tuente et al. 2019). FAE not universal Mostly individualist cultures (e.g. USA), not so much collectivist (e.g. China). Social approach Key concept 1: Conformity Evaluation What is it? Going along with a group due to invisible ‘pressure’. Normative social in†uence (NSI) Accept norms of group (conform) to be liked and avoid rejection. Emotional process, stronger in stressful situations. Informational social in†uence (ISI) Change behaviour/ opinions when we believe others are right. Cognitive process, especially in new or unclear situations. Studying conformity Asch’s (1951) students conformed to avoid rejection (NSI). Practical applications Whistle-blowers in organisations are anti-conformists, resist NSI and ISI. Research support Asch’s participants conformed to avoid disapproval. No public pressure = no conformity. NSI and ISI are less clear in the real world Lower conformity with dissenter who gives social support (NSI) and is source of information (ISI). Key concept 2: Types of conformity Evaluation Internalisation Agree privately and publicly with others, permanent, due to ISI. Compliance Agree publicly but not privately, temporary, due to NSI. Identiƒcation Combination of other two, agree publicly and privately because we identify with group, only while we are members. Practical applications Target types of destructive conformity in workplaces to improve decision-making. Research support Compliance (Asch 1951), identiˆcation (Orlando 1973), internalisation (Sherif 1935). Oversimpliƒcation Artiˆcial research, not real groups, overlap in real world. Key concept 3: In-groups and out-groups Evaluation What is social categorisation? Divide people into groups based on shared characteristics, assume members all the same. What is a stereotype? Fixed view of a person based on social category. Formation of stereotypes Social categorisation of in-groups and out-groups, observe and imitate others (SLT). Effect of stereotypes • Positive – simplify interactions, reduce cognitive effort. • Negative – distort memory and social judgements. Prejudice and discrimination Perceive out-group members as inferior, exclude them e.g. from employment. Practical application Reduce prejudice by seeing self as part of bigger group, challenge stereotypes by cooperating. Research support Half of white participants thought black man was holding razor, racist stereotype biased memory (Allport and Postman 1947). Alternative explanations Prejudice due to authoritarian personality (from upbringing) rather than social factors. Key concept 4: Intra-group dynamics Evaluation Group cohesion Group members stick together to achieve goals, based on trust and communication. Roles Task, social and procedural roles increase cohesion, individualist roles reduce it. Common goals Cohesive groups share goals, working together is motivating. Groupthink Group members agree, stop analysing decisions or exploring alternatives. Social facilitation Presence of others enhances performance on simple tasks but not complex ones. Practical applications Use methods to avoid groupthink, e.g. encourage criticism and include outside people (Janis 1982). Research support Focus on group goals improves performance (Thürmer et al. 2017), Devil’s Advocate avoids groupthink (MacDougall and Baum 1997). Contrary evidence Group roles overlap in real world, individual goals help performance (Gowen 1985). Key concept 5: Inuences of others on the self Evaluation What is self-concept? How you see yourself (‘Who am I?’), includes self-esteem and self-image. In†uences of others on self-esteem Make us feel good: how others react, how we compare, social roles. In†uences of others on self-image Awareness of own characteristics affected by feedback from others. What is self-efficacy? Conˆdence in achieving outcomes. In†uences of others Observe others succeeding (social modelling), positive verbal feedback (social persuasion). Practical applications E.g. school performance improved by increasing self-esteem (Lawrence 2006). Research support Fulˆlling relationships increase self-esteem, which improves relationships (Harris and Orth 2020). Vague concepts Concepts overlap, self-image and self-esteem very similar ( jangle fallacy), limits understanding. Assumptions of the cognitive approach Behaviour is a product of information processing Internal mental processes (e.g. perception, memory) operate in stages to make sense of the world. The brain can be compared to a computer Like computers we process through inputprocessing-output. Hardware (brain), so¬ware (information). Assumptions of the social approach Behaviour occurs in a social context People are social animals, psychologists study the inšuence of others to understand behaviour (e.g. in conformity). Wider culture and society in†uence people’s behaviour Differences can be understood in terms of individualist (own needs) vs. collectivist (community’s needs). Assumptions of the behaviourist and social learning approaches Behaviour is a learned response to environmental stimuli Classical conditioning – Pavlov’s dogs, learning through association. Operant conditioning – behaviour reinforced by its consequences from the environment (e.g. reward). Behaviour can be learned from observation and imitation We observe behaviour and imitate role models, especially if they are rewarded. Assumptions of the biological approach Behaviour is in†uenced by our biology Physical basis to behaviour – central nervous system (brain), genes, neurochemistry (e.g. serotonin). Behaviour is a product of evolution Natural selection of survival-promoting behaviours, genes passed on (Darwin 1859). Assumptions of four approaches Behaviourist and social learning approaches Key concept 1: Classical conditioning (CC) Evaluation What is it? Learning through association of two stimuli with each other (Pavlov). Before conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS e.g. food) produces unconditioned response (UCR e.g. salivation), other stimuli are neutral (NS). During conditioning UCS + NS (e.g. bell) repeatedly paired, associate NS + UCS. A’er conditioning NS now a conditioned stimulus (CS) producing response (CR) on its own. Practical applications Electric shock (UCS) given when reading gambling phrases (NS), become CS producing discomfort (CR). Research support Little Albert conditioned to fear white rat (Watson and Rayner 1920). Limited explanation of learning Can’t explain complex learning, e.g. phobias not maintained over time through CC. Key concept 2: Operant conditioning (OC) Evaluation What is it? Learning from consequences. Consequence 1 – Reinforcement Increases probability of behaviour repeating. • Positive – pleasant consequence. • Negative – remove unpleasant stimulus. Consequence 2 – Punishment Reduces probability of behaviour repeating. • Positive – unpleasant consequence. • Negative – remove pleasant stimulus. Motivation Driven by rewards through OC: • Extrinsic rewards – from environment (other people). • Intrinsic rewards – from yourself (e.g. interest, challenge). Practical applications In education, extrinsic rewards for good work, intrinsic rewards encouraged to raise self-esteem. Research support Animal and human lab studies show OC, also brain basis of reinforcement (Chase et al. 2015). Incomplete explanation of learning Explains how phobias maintained over time but not how acquired in ˆrst place. Key concept 3: Social learning theory (SLT) Evaluation What is it? Indirect learning: observation, vicarious learning and imitation (e.g. Bobo doll studies). Modelling (1) demonstrating a behaviour to another, (2) person imitates the behaviour. Learning through observation Observer watches model’s behaviour, retains in memory. Imitation Copying model’s behaviour, more likely if observer identiˆes with model (same gender, high status, etc.). Vicarious learning Observing the model receive reinforcement of behaviour makes observer more likely to imitate. Practical applications Targets to reduce aggression e.g. reduce rewards, provide non-aggressive models. Research support Imitation more likely when model is rewarded (Bandura 1965). Children develop phobias from observing fearful behaviour in adults (Askew and Field 2007). Alternative explanation Phobia occurrence greater in identical than non-identical twins (Kendler et al 2001), SLT cannot explain role of genetics. Biological approach Key concept 1: Inuence of biology on behaviour and traits Evaluation In†uence of biology on behaviour Behaviour has a physical basis, inšuenced by: • Genes – inherited from parents. • Neuroanatomy – structure of nervous system. • Neurochemistry – e.g. neurotransmitters. • Evolution – natural selection, adapting to environment. In†uence of biology on traits Characteristics that make up personality, e.g.: • Extraversion – outgoing and sociable, extraverts inherit underactive nervous system, need to arouse it. • Introversion – withdrawn and shy, introverts inherit overactive nervous system, need to avoid arousal. Practical applications Criminals are o¬en extraverts and not put off by punishments, so reduce with different approach (e.g. drugs). Research support Twin studies show E-I partly genetically determined (57%, Sanchez-Roige et al. 2017). Role of non-biological factors Learning experiences and environment may be more important in E-I than genes. Key concept 2: Genetics and inheritance Evaluation What are genes? Strands of DNA carry ‘instructions’ for physical and nonphysical characteristics. Genotype The complete set of genes you inherit. Phenotype How genes are expressed in interaction with environment. The SRY gene On Y chromosome, switches on other genes, XY embryo develops testes and produces testosterone. Practical applications A genetic predisposition (genotype) is triggered by an environmental factor (e.g. stress), so change environmental factors. Research support Variants in SRY gene show its usual function is to masculinise XY embryos. Risk of oversimpliƒcation E.g. genes increase risk of depression but do not cause it, many interacting genes needed. Key concept 3: Neuroanatomy Evaluation What is it? Structure of brain and nervous system. Localisation of brain function Brain areas have different functions, e.g.: • Motor area – controls movement of opposite side of body. • Somatosensory area – represents skin sensitivity of body (e.g. hands). • Visual area – receives information from le¬ and right visual ˆelds. Lateralisation of brain function Some functions are in just one hemisphere (e.g. language in le¬ for most). Plasticity of the brain Brain is šexible and can change, e.g. by: • Synaptic pruning – reducing synapses to form new ones. • Functional recovery – undamaged areas take over a¬er injury. Practical applications Programmes to protect elderly against age-related cognitive decline (plasticity, Merzenich et al. 2014). Research support RH dominant for making facial expressions and recognising emotions in music (Lindell 2013). Not so localised Brain scans show language is distributed more widely in the brain, even in the RH. Key concept 4: Organisation of the nervous system Evaluation Nervous system Internal communication system, electrical and chemical signals. Central nervous system (CNS) Origin of complex commands and decisions. • Brain – two hemispheres = contralateral control; cerebral cortex = higher mental processes. • Spinal cord – controls rešex actions and communication with body. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Controls automatic functions without conscious awareness. • Sympathetic division – activates arousal (ˆght or šight). • Parasympathetic division – activates resting state (rest and digest). Practical applications ANS arousal interferes with performance, so drugs developed to reduce anxiety. Research support Damage to human nervous system has speciˆc effects, also studying effects on animal behaviour. Other systems are involved Endocrine system (hormones) important in ˆght or šight, not just NS on its own. Key concept 5: Neurochemistry Evaluation What is it? How activity of substances in nervous system affects brain and behaviour. Hormones and the stress response Stress hormones (‘chemical messengers’) regulate body’s response to stress. • Adrenaline – stimulated by ANS in ˆght or šight, acute arousal e.g. heart rate. • Cortisol – chronic response, mobilises energy but suppresses immune system. Neurotransmitters Allow communication between neurons across synapses, e.g. serotonin (low levels linked to depression, activity changed by drugs). Practical applications Addison’s disease means body cannot cope with stress but treatment is daily cortisol replacement. Research support Serotonin helps stabilise mood (McNeal and Cimbolic 1986), high cortisol causes body damage (Russell and Lightman 2019). Incomplete explanation Ignores psychological factors, e.g. two people perceive same stressor differently (e.g. exam). Key concept 6: Evolutionary psychology Evaluation Survival of the ƒttest Darwin (1859) explained natural selection – when resources are scarce, genes that produce characteristics helping survival (and reproduction) are selected and passed on. Environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) Human minds and behaviour evolved to adapt to life on the African savannah. Genome lag The gap between changes in our environment and adaptive changes to genome. Fight, †ight, freeze response An animal’s immediate response to a stressor (confront, šee, stay still), sympathetic division of ANS. Sexual selection Characteristics that threaten survival continue because attractive to potential mates. Research support Cultural changes in last 100 years (e.g. women less dependent), but not genome change. Problems with the EEA concept Human evolution continued a¬er EEA (e.g. digest lactose), some characteristics evolved recently. Gender bias Towards men, e.g. women’s response to stress is ‘tend and befriend’, not ‘ˆght, šight, freeze’ (Taylor 2000). 52 53 Unit 1: Psychological approaches and applications How to use this book Unit 1 and Unit 2 both open with a spread which has: • A set of questions to start you thinking about the content to come. • A detailed table of contents. Extra material Unit 1 Content areas A and B end with: Summaries to revise from. Multiple-choice questions to test yourself. Assessment guidance to help supply the right material in your exam answers. Revision guidance. Practice questions, answers and feedback to see how answers are marked. Unit 2 Learning aims A, B, C+D end with: Assessment guidance to help you to write your internally assessed report. Contents Content area A: Key psychological approaches, their assumptions and concepts A1 Approaches and assumptions Assumptions of four approaches 10 A1 Cognitive approach Key concept 1: Characteristics of three memory stores 12 Key concept 2: Remembering 14 Key concept 3: Reconstructive memory 16 Key concept 4: Cognitive priming 18 Key concept 5: The role of cognitive scripts 20 Key concept 6: Cognitive biases 22 A2 Social approach Key concept 1: Conformity 24 Key concept 2: Types of conformity 26 Key concept 3: In-groups and out-groups 28 Key concept 4: Intra-group dynamics 30 Key concept 5: In uences of others on the self 32 A3 Behaviourist and social learning approaches Key concept 1: Classical conditioning 34 Key concept 2: Operant conditioning 36 Key concept 3: Social learning theory 38 A4 Biological approach Key concept 1: In uence of biology on behaviour and traits 40 Key concept 2: Genetics and inheritance 42 Key concept 3: Neuroanatomy 44 Key concept 4: Organisation of the nervous system 46 Key concept 5: Neurochemistry 48 Key concept 6: Evolutionary psychology 50 Revision summary Multiple-choice questions Assessment and revision guidance Practice questions, answers and feedback 52 54 58 62 Content area B: Application of psychological approaches B1 Use of psychology to explain contemporary issues of aggression in society Cognitive approach 64 Social approach 66 Behaviourist and social learning approaches 68 Biological approach 70 B2 Use of psychology in business to explain and inƒuence consumer behaviour Cognitive approach 72 Social approach 74 Behaviourist and social learning approaches 76 Biological approach 78 B3 Application of psychology to explain gender Cognitive approach 80 Social approach 82 Behaviourist and social learning approaches 84 Biological approach 86 Revision summary Multiple-choice questions Assessment and revision guidance Practice questions, answers and feedback 88 90 92 94 What is happening in these people’s heads? What is going on in their bodies? How is their behaviour affecting each other? How have their past experiences affected them? There are so many different ways of explaining the same behaviour – what is the best approach to take? Unit 1 Psychological approaches and applications Read important advice on assessment and revision before you begin! 8 9 Content areas or learning aims? Unit 1 is divided into content areas A and B (because it is externally assessed). Unit 2 is divided into learning aims A, B, C and D (because it is internally assessed). Content area A Multiple-choice questions . If you view someone as outgoing, you probably also think they are: (a) Introverted. (b) Quiet. (c) Impulsive. (d) Unfriendly. . One way to make person perception more accurate is to: (a) Take time to get to know someone. (b) Use stereotypes. (c) Make an instant ‘snap’ judgement. (d) Have many expectations of someone. Cognitive biases . ‘Noticing things that support your current beliefs’ is: (a) Conrmation bias. (b) Fundamental attribution error. (c) Hostile attribution bias. (d) Logical error bias. . Assuming someone trod on your foot deliberately is an example of: (a) Conrmation bias. (b) Irrational thinking bias. (c) Hostile attribution bias. (d) Social interaction bias. . There is a close link between HAB and: (a) Lateness. (b) Shyness. (c) Aggression. (d) Friendliness. . The fundamental attribution error is found: (a) In every culture. (b) In cultures like China. (c) Mainly in individualist cultures. (d) When people believe behaviour is caused by situational factors. Conformity . Agreeing with the group to avoid rejection is: (a) Conformative social in…uence. (b) Normative social in…uence. (c) Informational social in…uence. (d) Performative social in…uence. . Informational social in uence is: (a) An emotional process. (b) A cognitive process. (c) Unlikely in new situations. (d) Rare when an expert is present. . Asch’s overall conformity rate was: (a) 36.8%. (b) 25%. (c) 75%. (d) 63.2%. . In real-world situations: (a) NSI is more important than ISI. (b) ISI is more important than NSI. (c) NSI does not occur. (d) NSI and ISI operate together. Types of conformity . Three types of conformity were identi€ed by: (a) Sherif. (b) Asch. (c) Orlando. (d) Kelman. . A permanent type of conformity is: (a) Compliance. (b) Internalisation. (c) Identication. (d) Normative social in…uence. . The study by Orlando illustrates: (a) Identication. (b) Internalisation. (c) Compliance. (d) The role of personality. . In real-world conformity: (a) Compliance is the deepest type. (b) Internalisation is temporary. (c) Identication is the most common type. (d) Different types overlap. In-groups and out-groups . Stereotypes are: (a) A form of social categorisation. (b) Flexible. (c) Nearly always accurate. (d) Caused by genes. . Stereotypes: (a) Can lead to prejudice. (b) Increase cognitive processing effort. (c) Are always negative. (d) Cannot be explained by social learning theory. . Prejudice is and discrimination is . (a) a behaviour, an attitude. (b) a belief, a feeling. (c) an attitude, a behaviour. (d) an attitude, a feeling. . In Allport and Postman’s study, the black man was: (a) The attacker. (b) The victim. (c) A racist stereotype. (d) A bystander. Intra-group dynamics . Group cohesion is greater when: (a) Goals are not shared. (b) Members see themselves as similar. (c) There is little communication. (d) Levels of trust are low. . Roles that keep the group moving forward are called: (a) Task roles. (b) Social roles. (c) Procedural roles. (d) Individualist roles. . Social facilitation in . (a) Improves performance, complex tasks. (b) Reduces performance, complex tasks. (c) Improves performance, simple tasks. (d) Reduces performance, large groups. . Groupthink can be avoided by using: (a) A ‘Beelzebub’s lawyer’. (b) An ‘Evil Genius’. (c) A ‘Satan’s Supporter’. (d) A ‘Devil’s Advocate’. Assumptions of four approaches . The computer analogy is an assumption of the: (a) Biological approach. (b) Social approach. (c) Cognitive approach. (d) Behaviourist and social learning approaches. . An assumption of the social approach is: (a) Information processing. (b) Classical conditioning. (c) Behaviour is in…enced by cultur . (d) The role of neurochemistry. . The behaviourist and social learning approaches involve: (a) Observation and imitation. (b) The role of genes. (c) The role of the nervous system. (d) Input-processing-output. . ‘Behaviour evolves through natural selection’ is an assumption of the: (a) Social approach. (b) Behaviourist and social learning approaches. (c) Cognitive approach. (d) Biological approach. Characteristics of three memory stores . The duration of iconic memory is: (a) Up to a lifetime. (b) Up to about 30 seconds. (c) About 2 to 4 seconds. (d) Less than half a second. . The capacity of STM is: (a) Between 2 and 7 items. (b) 7 ± 2 items. (c) Practically unlimited. (d) A few seconds. . Encoding in LTM is mostly: (a) Sem ntic. (b) Acoustic. (c) Visual. (d) Tactile. . One way to increase the size of STM is: (a) Dunking. (b) Chunking. (c) Bunking. (d) Perlunking. Remembering . Retrieving information without ‘help’ is: (a) Recognition. (b) Cued recall. (c) Free recall. (d) Context-related. . An example of a meaningful cue is: (a) External context. (b) ‘It starts with S’. (c) Emotions. (d) Internal state. . ROYGBIV is an example of: (a) A category heading. (b) A context-related cue. (c) A cue without meaning. (d) A mnemonic. . Tulving and Pearlstone showed that: (a) Category headings are cues. (b) Cues help retrieve ‘forgotten’ information. (c) Cued recall is superior to free recall. (d) All of the above. Reconstructive memory . A schema is: (a) An accurate memory. (b) A package of stored knowledge. (c) A physical part of the brain. (d) An inaccurate memory. . Inventing details of a memory is: (a) Shortening. (b) Rationalisation. (c) Fragmenting. (d) Confabulation. . Bartlett used a story called: (a) An Inuit Folk Tale. (b) The Battle of the Spirits. (c) The Arrows in the Canoe. (d) The War of the Ghosts. . B rtlett may be wrong because: (a) Some memories are very accurate. (b) All memories are reconstructed. (c) Memories are affected by schema. (d) No one recalled ‘Something black came out of his mouth’. Cognitive priming . A ‘prime’ is: (a) A later stimulus. (b) The third stimulus. (c) An earlier stimulus. (d) Always visual. . ‘Two stimuli that mean the same thing’ relates to priming. (a) Repetition. (b) Associative. (c) Script. (d) Semantic. . Harris et al. studied priming in: (a) TV adverts. (b) Children’s books. (c) Magazines. (d) Facebook news feeds. . A study by supports priming. (a) Möller and Krahé. (b) Möller and Harris. (c) Harris and Krahé. (d) Morris and Krahé. The role of cognitive scripts . Schank and Abelson described the script. (a) Theatre. (b) Football match. (c) Restaurant. (d) Office. . We may remember an event when it is: (a) Different from a script. (b) Consistent with a script. (c) What we expected. (d) All of the above. 54 55 Unit 1: Psychological approaches and applications Content area A Assessment guidance Unit 1 (Psychological approaches and applications) is externally assessed by one examination. You will be awarded a mark for the whole paper – Distinction (D), Merit (M), Pass (P), Near Pass (N) or Unclassified (U). The exam is 1 hour 30 minutes. The total number of marks for the paper is 72. The paper is divided into three Sections (A, B and C), each with 24 marks. Each Section contains material from both Content areas A and B. The examination How to answer exam-style questions Type of question Example question Example structure for answer Short answer questions State what is meant by ‘classical conditioning’. (1) A type of learning where a neutral stimulus is paired with a UCS so a new stimulus–response association is learned. Describe what psychologists mean by ‘social categorisation’. (2) This is when we put people into social groupings based on perceived shared characteristics. For example, someone might think all old people are similar and they have other characteristics such as being slow or grumpy (stereotypes). Context questions Merlin was listening to the song Banana Pancakes by Jack Johnson. When he went into the kitchen, he immediately noticed the bananas in the fruit bowl. Explain one type of priming that he is showing. (2) Merlin is showing repetition priming. This is because hearing the word ‘banana’ in the song primed him cognitively so that he noticed the bananas very quickly when he saw them later. Sid has been a vegetarian for 20 years. Despite not eating meat, he recently went to a steak restaurant with some friends because he didn’t want to appear unfriendly. Explain why compliance is the most appropriate type of conformity to understand Sid’s behaviour. (3) Sid is showing compliance because he publicly agreed to go along with the group. But as he has been a vegetarian for 20 years, he privately would prefer not to go. So he complied just to avoid being rejected by the group. His compliance is temporary because he won’t go to steak restaurants without pressure from his friends. Evaluate compliance as an explanation of Sid’s behaviour. (3) It might be oversimplifying Sid’s behaviour to say he was just complying. There is oŽen more than one type of conformity in situations like this. As Sid and the others are friends, perhaps they have some things in common. So maybe Sid conformed because he identi‘ed with the group. This means compliance is only part of the explanation for Sid’s behaviour. Type of question Example question Example structure for answer Context questions continued Mia saw her dad drinking a healthy yoghurt drink. When he ‘nished, Mia’s mum said to him, ‘You really like those drinks, don’t you?’ Later on, when she was thirsty, Mia took a healthy yoghurt drink from the fridge and drank it. Explain two ways that social learning theory could be used to understand Mia’s behaviour. (4) One way is modelling. Mia’s dad acted as a model, demonstrating a behaviour for Mia to imitate. She observed him drinking the healthy drink and modelled her actions on his when she had the opportunity. Another way is vicarious learning. Mia’s dad probably enjoyed the drink which was con‘rmed by her mum’s comment. Mia observed this and experienced the enjoyment vicariously. She found this rewarding, which made it more likely Mia would imitate her dad’s behaviour. A woman had her handbag snatched off her in the street. Summer witnessed the attack. She was interviewed by the police and described what she could remember. Using two concepts from reconstructive memory, explain why Summer may not have been accurate in her eyewitness description of the attack. (6) Concept 1 – Rationalisation: Summer’s eyewitness memory might be inaccurate because she recalls details in a way that ‘ts her existing schema. For example, if Summer did not get a clear view she might have been uncertain of the attacker’s gender or age but described them as a ‘young man’. This would ‘t her schema for a ‘street robbery’ perhaps based on TV and ‘lms. This would make the memory more meaningful to Summer even though it may be wrong. Concept 2 – Shortening: Summer may have leŽ details out altogether because they did not ‘t her schema. For example, if she expects such robberies to be carried out by a lone individual, she might not recall the suspicious-looking second person acting as a ‘lookout’. As a result, her description of the robbery would be shorter than it could be. Health warning The material on assessment advice is not from the exam board. It is our interpretation of the ‘rules of the game’. Exams are a kind of ‘game’ because there are guidelines and rules, and practice is very important to do well. But it is a serious ‘game’. ! Command terms Most questions begin with a command term. Each of these terms has a meaning. These are explained in full on page 92. AO1 Demonstrate psychological knowledge, be able to recall key assumptions and concepts. • Command words: describe, give, give a reason why, identify, name, state. • Marks: range from 1 to 4 marks. AO2 Demonstrate understanding by explaining the link between psychological assumptions and concepts to behaviour in society. • Command words: describe, explain, interpret, justify. • Marks: range from 1 to 4 marks. AO3 Apply and evaluate psychological assumptions and concepts to explain contemporary issues of relevance to society. • Command words: analyse, assess, compare, discuss, evaluate, explain (only assess, compare and evaluate require a conclusion). • Marks: range from 1 to 9 marks. Timing Timing is always important in exams because you have a ‘xed amount of time. You must spend sufficient time on each answer in relation to the marks but not too much (otherwise you won’t give full enough answers to other questions). You have 90 minutes to gain 72 available marks for the Unit 1 exam. But you also have to read and think (and scenarios can require a fair bit of both). Taking this into account, a helpful rule of thumb (a guideline) is ‘one minute per mark’. So base your timing calculations on this rough ‘gure. Exams are a giŽ because they are over and done with in one go. OK, you do have to spend time preparing (see next spread for preparation advice) but at the end of the day it is one exam rather than hours and hours and hours trying to perfect a report. Other mark schemes A useful guideline is that questions for fewer than 6 marks usually have mark schemes where 1 mark is awarded for each point. Broadly speaking, these are the key criteria for the overall outcome: Criteria for a pass Criteria for a distinction Answer is mostly accurate but with some omissions. Accurate and thorough with a few minor omissions. Shows awareness of competing arguments. Thorough awareness of competing arguments supported by relevant evidence across the unit in well-developed and logical discussion. The assessment is available in January and May/June each year. You are allowed to resit any external examination and will get the higher mark of any two attempts. However, it is unlikely you will bene‘t from this because it merely increases your work burden. Note, an example helps you to get the second mark. … it’s how you use it If you could go into the exam with all of your textbooks, you might not get top marks. How can that be, we hear you ask? It’s because exams are not just about knowing a set of facts – you also need to explain these facts and organise them in a meaningful way. It’s not what you know, but how you use your knowledge that counts. Effective description If a description question starts with the word Identify, State or Give and is worth 1 mark, then all you have to do is provide a brief answer. In this case your knowledge is all you need for a good answer – you get 1 mark for accuracy, or zero marks if inaccurate. Questions that start with Describe or Explain require more – as explained on the facing page. They need development, they require you to demonstrate you understand, possibly by giving an example. For example (see what we did there?): Question: State what is meant by the term ‘schema’. (1) Answer: A schema is a mental packet of beliefs and expectations. Question: Explain what is meant by the term ‘schema’. (2) Answer: A schema is a mental packet of beliefs and expectations. For example, you have a schema for trains which consists of what trains look like, what purpose they serve and what happens when you want to get on or off. Effective application Most questions have a scenario or context. These aim to test your understanding because you have to try to use the information you have learned to explain something new. You can only do that if you understand the concepts. This means almost every sentence should be related to both the scenario/context and the assumption/context/ theory you are using. Effective evaluation For effective evaluation you need to do at least two of the following three things (the PET rule): • Point – state the point you wish to make. • Explain/Elaborate/provide Evidence – provide some substance to support the claim you are making. • This suggests that… – end with a mini-conclusion. Sum up the point you have demonstrated. If you look at every evaluation point in this book you will see this is what we have done. Effective structure Examiners are human. Yes, really. You need to help them award you marks. You can do this by organising your answer clearly, just like the ones on this spread. Less is more Try to cover fewer points but, with each one, provide detail, explanation, examples, etc. DON’T write everything you know and hope the sheer volume of facts will impress the examiner. They need to know that you understand it. Detail is always important. The word ‘mental’ adds that little bit of extra information – one word can make an important difference. 58 59 Unit 1: Psychological approaches and applications Content area A Practice questions, answers and feedback Maneet has identical twin children, Wanda and Maya. Wanda has always been a ‘people person’. She has lots of friends she o en goes out with, especially from the local rugby club she plays for. Maya prefers to ‘keep herself to herself ’. She has always been quiet and shy, spending more time studying and caring for her pet snake than socialising. Question 3: Identify from this scenario evidence that Wanda and Maya: (a) share the same genotype, (b) have di erent phenotypes. (2 marks) Chen’s answer: (a) Wanda and Maya are Maneet’s children. (b) They are also identical twins. Teacher comments Chen is very confused. ‘Maneet’s children’ is not enough and ‘identical twins’ is not a phenotype. But he would have picked up 1 mark if only he had moved his answer to (b) into (a). 0 marks. Bella’s answer: (a) Wanda and Maya are identical twins. (b) They are both quite muscular from exercising. Bella is right about genotype – a brief answer but correct. Bella is wrong about the phenotype because she is assuming other information that is not in the scenario. What a pity she didn’t just use something from the scenario. 1 mark. Saturn’s answer: (a) They are Maneet’s identical twin children. (b) Wanda is a ‘people person’ with lots of friends. But Maya is quiet and shy and doesn’t like socialising. Saturn has both answers correct, contextualised with both individuals in each answer. For questions like these, you can just ‘liƒ’ the information from the scenario. There’s no need to summarise or even add anything. 2 marks. Question 4: Explain one di erence between genotype and phenotype. (2 marks) Chen’s answer: Genotype is just about the genes because it is the whole set of genes you have. Phenotype is more than just genes, it is how they are actually expressed by interacting with the environment. Teacher comments Chen goes on to show he does know about genotype and phenotype, making his earlier error even more unfortunate. He had the knowledge, but he struggled to apply it in the previous question. You need both skills. 2 marks. Bella’s answer: Genotype refers to the genes but phenotype is about what the genes do. Bella’s understanding of this topic is weak. She has at least attempted to identify a difference but it’s incorrect. 0 marks. Saturn’s answer: Genotype means the genes we have got but phenotype means the environment. Saturn knows more but hasn’t expressed it very well. ‘The genes we have got’ is correct for a mark, but phenotype is not identical to the environment. 1 mark. Maya became frightened of dogs when she was a child, a er a big dog barked very loudly right in her face. Question 5: Describe, using classical conditioning, why Maya became frightened of dogs. (3 marks) Chen’s answer: Maya has learned to be frightened through classical conditioning, because it is learning through association between dogs and fear. Teacher comments The only relevant correct material in Chen’s answer is the reference to learning through association. As this is linked to the scenario it’s worth 1 mark. Bella’s answer: The unconditioned stimulus was a loud noise (barking), which was what originally made Maya frightened (UCR). The dog was a neutral stimulus and produced no fear. But when the dog barked in her face, Maya associated the NS with the scary noise. The dog became a CS and produced the same fear as the UCS, so it is now the CR. This is another well-structured answer from Bella. There is a logical progression that describes all the stages of classical conditioning – before, during and aƒer. It’s clear from her use of terminology that Bella understands how classical conditioning works. 3 marks. Saturn’s answer: When Maya was young, she did not associate dogs with fear, so they were neutral. But she was afraid of loud noises which was not learned. The dog barked in Maya’s face so she associated the dog with noise, thinking it might happen again at any time. Some correct material with some structure. Saturn has described what happens before and during conditioning. But she has leƒ out the ‘aƒer’. For another mark, Saturn needed to include the new conditioned response. The answer lacks terminology and the reference to ‘thinking’ is inappropriate. Saturn doesn’t lose marks for this but she can’t gain any either. 2 marks. Jackie is addicted to playing on fruit machines. They get a thrill from all the ashing lights and loud noises and occasionally the money they win. They prefer doing this to being at home with their family. Question 6: Explain two ways operant conditioning can be used to understand Wanda’s behaviour. (4 marks) Chen’s answer: Positive reinforcement – Jackie nds that playing fruit machines gives them pleasure from the thrill and the money, which is rewarding so it reinforces them and they play again. Negative reinforcement – by playing fruit machines, Jackie avoids unpleasant consequences of being at home (because they prefer playing the machines), so it is an escape which gives them relief meaning they continue. Teacher comments Chen has structured his answer to make it very clear to the examiner that he knows about and understands this topic. He has clearly identiŽed two correct ways and clearly explained each one, relating them fully to the scenario. He has also used some technical terms accurately. 4 marks. Bella’s answer: Jackie will continue to use the fruit machines because of the ashing lights that give them a thrill. Another way is to do with how they sometimes win money, which means they will carry on doing it to get a bit better off. Bella has fallen into the trap of just repackaging the information given in the scenario. There’s no evidence in Bella’s answer that she understands operant conditioning at all – no technical terms, no clear two ways identiŽed and virtually no explanation. 0 marks. Saturn’s answer: Jackie’s behaviour is positively reinforced by the rewarding thrill and ashing lights etc so they carry on playing. But they are negatively punished by being at home, which is why they prefer to spend more time playing the fruit machines. This is a partially correct answer because the Žrst way is correct. Saturn has identiŽed positive reinforcement and explained it in relation to the scenario. But she hasn’t identiŽed a correct second way and appears to be confused about the role of punishment. 2 marks. On this spread we look at some typical answers to exam-style questions. The comments provided (in green) from an experienced teacher show what is good and bad in each answer. Learning how to provide effective exam answers is a SKILL. Practise it. Maneet is a police detective and Marcus is her senior officer. One day, Maneet was out interviewing potential witnesses when one of them had a panic attack and Maneet had to help them. Maneet was late back to the office, and Marcus accused her of being lazy and having a poor attitude. Question 1 (a): Using the concept of fundamental attribution error, explain why Marcus made his comments about Maneet. (2 marks) Chen’s answer: Marcus accused her of being lazy and having a poor attitude. This is because FAE makes you not consider the situation of earlier, so you are only interested in what happens in the present. Teacher comments There’s no evidence in this answer that Chen has any knowledge about the FAE. The only link he makes to the scenario is to repeat the information given in the question, so he hasn’t explained anything. 0 marks. Bella’s answer: Marcus attributes Maneet’s lateness to her personality – laziness and a bad attitude are internal characteristics of a person. But Marcus has failed to take into account or ignored the situation Maneet was in as a reason why she was late, because she had to help someone. Bella has identiŽed a correct reason why Marcus made his comments. Then she explains this further using the FAE, with full links to the scenario. Bella includes both individual characteristics and the situation, not just one or the other. There’s more than enough here for 2 marks. Saturn’s answer: Marcus did not consider that Maneet was late because of something outside her control in the situation. He was probably quite aggressive towards Maneet, perhaps because he had a hostile attribution bias. Saturn is correct about the role of the situation, which she partly applies to the scenario. But there’s no clear point about Maneet’s personality. Instead, Saturn has gone beyond the information given in the scenario (she’s making stuff up) and unfortunately written about the wrong cognitive bias. 1 mark. Question 1 (b): Briefly assess fundamental attribution error as an explanation of Marcus’s comments. (3 marks) Chen’s answer: The FAE could give us some practical applications. Marcus made a mistake in his reasons why Maneet was late. He thought it was down to Maneet’s personality. This was because of his FAE so he could be helped to realise that he is mistaken. In future Marcus would not make a judgement without all the information about what has happened. So this is a practical application for the FAE. Teacher comments Chen’s answer is a bit unclear and disorganised. But he has tried to assess the FAE in the context of Marcus and Maneet. Chen Žrstly identiŽes a useful strength. He goes on to explain it (unclearly). But Chen’s conclusion is weak – he just repeats the opening point about practical applications. A better approach is to explain why this is beneŽcial for Marcus, e.g. ‘This means Marcus would make more accurate judgements about other people’s behaviour, which would help a lot in his job as a police officer’. 2 marks. Bella’s answer: A weakness of the FAE is that it only exists in some cultures. You nd it in individualist cultures like the UK where people value individual needs more than the community. But in collectivist cultures (China), behaviour is usually thought to be caused by the situation. So the FAE does not exist in all of human behaviour. Bella seems to have learned a relevant point from the textbook. The point itself is Žne, but she hasn’t shaped her response to answer the question. Look carefully – there is no link to Marcus and Maneet at all. So this answer does not meet the requirement ‘… as an explanation of Marcus’s comments’. Even though it is quite lengthy it gets 0 marks. Saturn’s answer: A problem with the FAE is that it depends on culture to explain Marcus’s comments. If Marcus and Maneet were working in a collectivist culture, Marcus would not attribute Maneet’s lateness to her personality but to the situation. This suggests that the FAE is not a universal feature of behaviour, so it is a limited explanation of Marcus’s comments. Saturn has assessed the FAE very well, with a classic PET – Point, Explanation/ Evidence, ‘This suggests …’. Most importantly, she has used her knowledge properly – this is a fully contextualised answer because Saturn has completely engaged with the scenario (and not just used the names Marcus and Maneet). 3 marks. Maneet is part of a book club and hated the latest book that was chosen for the group to read. However, at the next meeting everyone else said the author was a great writer, so Maneet said she loved the book. Question 2: Using the social approach, explain two reasons why Maneet agreed with the rest of the group. (4 marks) Chen’s answer: Maneet conforms with the group because she agrees with them that the book is good. Maneet might also think that the other people know more than she does, so she goes along with their expertise. Teacher comments Chen identiŽes ‘conformity’ but this is not enough for a ‘reason’. He doesn’t explain it any further but he does link to the scenario so this gets 1 mark. For the second point he does identify a reason but doesn’t explain it or apply it to the scenario. Chen is making the examiner work very hard to Žnd any credit in this answer. 1 mark. Bella’s answer: Normative social in uence – Maneet may have conformed with the rest of the group so she would be accepted. She was afraid the group would reject her, so she decided to go against her true opinions. Informational social in uence – Maneet assumed the others were better informed about the book because they knew more about the author. She agreed because she thought their opinion was correct. Bella’s answer is really well-structured and makes things easy for the examiner to Žnd credit. She identiŽes two clear reasons, explains them and links them to Maneet. This is a good example of someone using their knowledge to focus on the question. Bella hasn’t just written about NSI and ISI but has shaped her knowledge to match the requirements of the question. She makes four key points for 4 marks. Saturn’s answer: Maneet is showing NSI because she didn’t want the group to reject her for hating the book. She is also conforming because she wants to be friends with everyone and be accepted by them. The Žrst reason Saturn gives is Žne – she correctly identiŽes NSI and explains it in the context of the scenario. Saturn may think she has given a second reason but she hasn’t. All she has done is restated NSI, so this is really an extension of the Žrst point. This is a partial answer, so it gets 2 marks. 62 63 Unit 1: Psychological approaches and applications Assessment guidance Learning aims C and D You are required to produce a maximum of three reports for Unit 2 which means combining at least two of the learning aims. It makes sense to combine learning aims C and D as we have done here. This is your report of the pilot study proposed in learning aim B. The report can be written or presented as a poster, PowerPoint or other form. This report can only be completed after you have studied the content of learning aims C and D as it is a synoptic assessment (see page 117 for an explanation). Learning aims C and D assessment Self-review checklist First dra The list in the table below re ects the headings we have suggested for your report but there is another list which is important – the marking factors in the table at the bottom of the page. You must make sure you cover these at your target level. Remember this is a dra . So you can write anything, just get thoughts on the page. But do not copy anything, even at this stage. Date to complete rst dra : • In the rst white column enter the completion dates for each section of your report. • As you write each section tick when you have explained, analysed, discussed and evaluated. Date completed Explain (C.P„) Analyse (C.M‡) Discuss (D.Pˆ) Explain (D.P‰) Analyse (D.MŠ) Evaluate (CD.D‡) C Findings Procedures for data collection Data analysis Presenting to audience D Discussion Review research question Link to previous research Evaluation of the research Future research Impact on practice/provision Self-re ection Further references compiled Second dra The next step is to revise your rst document. Below is a checklist of things to consider. Date to complete second dra : Date completed I have checked that I have covered each of the eight marking factors (grey column) in the table below. I have gone through and deleted any irrelevant material. I have checked that every point has evidence to back it up. I have identied long sentences and rephrased them. I have checked that each paragraph deals with one idea. I have corrected any spelling mistakes. I have checked that each paragraph makes reference to the scenario/ context. Final dra Read through your completed second dra“ to polish the report. Date to complete nal dra : Assessment information Your nal report will be awarded a Distinction (D), Merit (M), Pass (P), Near Pass (N) or Unclassied (U). The specication provides criteria for each level as shown below. Pass Merit Distinction Identify and analyse ndings. C.P– PERFORM a pilot study in one area of psychology. C.P„ EXPLAIN ndings using appropriate formats. C.M‡ ANALYSE ndings from conducting own research using appropriate formats. Pass Merit Distinction Explain strengths/ weaknesses of design and ideas for improvement. D.Pˆ DISCUSS success of own research using self-re ection and feedback from others. D.P‰ EXPLAIN implications of own research on future practice, provision and professional development. D.MŠ ANALYSE own research ndings using selfre ection and feedback from others for future practice, provision and professional development. CD.D‡ EVALUATE ndings, and the effectiveness of own research, using appropriate formats, self-re ection and feedback from others, and the implication for future practice, provision and professional development. Evaluation Marking factors The specication also provides information that an assessor will take into consideration when marking your assignment. Marking factors Pass Merit Distinction Rationale for research, research questions, methodologies and procedure … basic information. logical. logical and accurate. Discussion of data analysis tools … brief details. well-structured. analytical. Findings displayed … at least two different formats. variety of formats. Structured according to academic conventions and referencing … an attempt. well-structured. accurately structured. Success of the research project, using feedback from others and self-re ection … a few re ections. an argument. critical evaluation. Impact of research on areas of practice and provision in supporting the development of strategies, treatments and understanding of their chosen area of research … an identication, although examples may not always link well to the research project. critical analysis. excellent understanding. The impact of research in supporting personal and professional development … some consideration. considered examples and some original thought. well-considered examples and originality of thought. How the pilot study could be adapted for a larger-scale research project ... brief overview. a discussion. a logical and well-reasoned discussion. Recommended assessment approach Assignment briefs The board supplies suggested assessment briefs which you can use – see Unit 2 Authorised assignment brief for Learning aim C and D Conducting psychological research. You are required to write a report: • On the procedures followed for conducting research and collecting and analysing data. • Discussing the ndings and success of the pilot study, the implications of research on practice and provision, and the impact, through self-re ection and feedback from others, on personal and professional development. Vocational scenario The task (from Unit 2 C/D Assignment Brief) The scenario was decided in learning aim B. The Delivery Guide for Unit 2 states that the report for learning aim C concerns three areas: 1. Preparing for the practical research. 2. Carrying out the practical research (data collection and analysis). 3. Writing up the ndings effectively and in the appropriate format. The report for learning aim D is a review of the pilot study, to include positives and negatives based on: • Self-re ection. • Feedback from others. Referencing conventions You must include the details of all references cited in your report. These go at the end of the report. Names are given in alphabetical order with last name followed by initial. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was ‘et al’. Book references, e.g. Offer, D., Ostrov, E. and Howard, K. (1981) The Adolescent – a psychological self-portrait. New York: Basic Books. Note, the title of the book is in italics. Journal references, e.g. MacKay, G. (2002) The disappearance of disability? Thoughts on a changing culture. British Journal of Special Education, 29(4), 159–163. Note, the journal name and volume number are italicised. Internet references, e.g. Roller, E. (2016) Your facts or mine? The New York Times, 25 October 2016, retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2016/10/25/opinion/campaign-stops/your-facts-ormine.html [Accessed March 2019]. Personal communication Robertson, M. (2012) personal communication. Command terms for learning aim C The assessment criteria on the right are dened on page 133. 144 145 Unit 2: Conducting psychological research f Content area A Revision guidance You will sit an exam on the topics in this unit. Exams mean r vising – but the secret is that revising should happen now. Start revising as you go along. We have divided this book into spreads. Each spread r presents on chunk f the specification as indicated at the bottom right of the spread. Preparing for the exam Revision card On the facing page is a list of all the topics you need to cover for Content area A. Belo is an example of a r vision card for one of these topics. Description Topic Reconstructive memory Key point (a cue) Description Reconstructive Bartlett: store fragments, recall builds it up into meaningful whole. Not accurate Bits missing and distorted, e.g. War of the Ghosts. Schema Mental structures, stored packages of knowledge of world (people, objects, events). Culture Born with some basic schema but acquire more through experience. In uences schema, shared expectations e.g. birthday party. Memory Reconstructed to t existing schema, more meaningful, easier to recall. Shortening Left out if doesn’t t schema (unexpected). Rationalisation Distorted to t schema because strange or unfamiliar, more sense. Confabulation Invented to ll gaps, guided by schema. Evaluation Eyewitness testimony Example of reconstruction leading to inaccurate recall, so convictions not based on this alone. War of the Ghosts Bartlett’s research, recall affected by sche a, inaccurate. Accurate Personally important or distinctive memories less affected by schema. The beauty of this is: • You reduce wh t you have to memorise ( just memorise e cues). T rest is just engraved in your memory through practice. • If you do this for every spread as you study it, then you will have all your revision materials ready at the end of the year when you have to prepare for the exam. For each topic you should produce a revision card. For some spreads you might decide to have more than one revision card. A cue There are snooker cues and there are other cues – a cue is a thing that serves as a reminder of something else. Actors know they must come in on cue – a reminder or signal. Psychologists have investigated the value of cues in remembering. They act as a reminder of what else you know. In the revision card on the right the €rst column is labelled ‘Key point’ which can serve as a cue to remember the contents in the second column, labelled ‘Description’. Step 1 See if your cues work If you just memorise the cues you should be able to produce the information in the second column: • Once you have produced the revision card, cover the second column and, for each cue, write down what you can recall. • Check how much you remembered. Maybe you need to add a word to your cue to help you. • Try again and see if you remember more this time. Psychological research shows that people o‡en have much more in their heads than they can recall – they just need the right cue. Step 2 Test your recall Psychological research has also shown that recall improves dramatically if you TEST your memory. That doesn’t mean rereading your notes but CLOSING YOUR BOOK and writing down everything you remember, then checking to see what you le‡ out and testing it again. Speci cation terms are important We have highlighted ‘speci€cation terms’ on each spread in a de€nition box but there are others too. These are examples of specialist psychological knowledge. Make sure you include these on your revision cards. The specialist terms turn an impressionist answer … … into a detailed one. This picture is described as a man ‘revising’ an excavation tyre. Revise = reconsider or alter. Revise = reread work previously done. Which means you need to read your notes €rst and then reread them. Practice No athlete would dream of running a race without doing many practice runs of the right distance and within a set time. Always write exam answers in the allotted time – taking into account time for reading, thinking and arranging pens on your desk, you’ve got just over one minute per mark (and you should give yourself a little bit longer for essay questions in Area B, coming up soon). Practise writing answers with the clock ticking. A‡erwards, check your revision card and textbook and note any really important things you forgot to mention. Revision checklist for Content area A Below are the key topics for Content area A. For each topic you should: 1. Construct a revision card and/or use our summaries (pages 52–53 and 88–89). 2. Test your recall using your cues. Check a‡erwards to see what you have forgotten. 3. Test your recall again using the cues. 4. Now test your memory of the cue words. 1. Construct revision card 2. First test of recall 3. Second test of recall 4. Test memory using cues Cognitive Cognitive assumptions Characteristics of three memory stores Remembering Reconstructive memory Cognitive priming The role of cognitive scripts Cognitive biases Social Social assumptions Conformity Types of conformity In-groups and out-groups Intra-group dynamics In¢uences of others on the self Behaviourist and social learning Behaviourist and social learning assumptions Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning theory (SLT) Biological Biological assumptions In¢uence of biology on behaviour and traits Genetics and inheritance Neuroanatomy Organisation of the nervous system Neurochemistry Evolutionary psychology Believe in the power of psychology 60 61 Unit 1: Psychological approaches and applications Main spreads The speci cation content is covered on spreads such as the one on the facing page. They all contain a similar pattern of boxes. 4 Copyright: Sample material