AQA GCSE Food Preparation and Nutrition: Revision Guide

Which foods give us protein (sources of protein) HBV protein foods: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, quark, soya beans, quinoa LBV protein foods: beans, peas, lentils, cereals [rice, wheat, oats, barley, rye, millet, sorghum] and cereal products [bread, pasta, etc.], nuts, seeds, gelatine Protein alternatives: Made from soya: tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein Mycoprotein made from a high protein fungus, e.g. Quorn TM What happens if you do not have enough protein (a de ciency) • Children do not grow properly • Hair loss • Poor skin and nails • Infections • Poor digestion of food • The body cannot grow without the right amount of protein • Hair is not essential so the body will stop it growing if it is short of protein • Skin and nails contain protein so will weaken without enough protein • The immune system needs protein to stop infections • The digestive system will not work properly without enough protein What happens if you have too much protein • Excess stored as fat • Weight gain – obesity • Puts a strain on the liver and kidneys Activity 1.1 Solve the puzzle below by filling in the missing letters. The clues are in the questions: P _ _ _ _ _ is the group name for peas, beans and lentils, which are good sources of LBV protein R_ _ _ _ _ of the body is one of the functions of protein O_ _ _ and seeds are two LBV protein foods that are ingredients in muesli T_ _ _ is one of three alternative protein foods beginning with a ‘T’ – (what are the other two?) E_ _ _ _ _ protein is only used for this if the body doesn’t have enough from carbohydrate or fat I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ these will happen a lot if the body does not have enough protein N_ _ _ these are good sources of LBV protein Revision tip To show your understanding of essential amino acids, HBV and LBV proteins and protein complementation, make sure you can give some examples of different foods in which they are found. Amino acids: the ‘building blocks’ that join together to make protein molecules Essential amino acids: amino acids that the body cannot make by itself and must get from the food we eat Biological value: the number of essential amino acids that a protein food contains Protein complementation: eating different LBV protein foods together in order to get all the essential amino acids that the body needs Key terms you should try to use in your answers Applying your learning A 14-year-old friend has been in an accident and is recovering from a broken arm and cuts and grazing on their legs. • Explain why it is important as they recover that they eat plenty of different foods containing protein. • Which other nutrients will be particularly important to help their recovery? Give reasons for your answers. 337 Chapter 1: Nutrients : Protein