AQA Psychology for A Level Year 1 & AS: Student Book 2nd Edition

Types of attachment 1. The Strange Situation can be best described as what kind of study? (a) Naturalistic observation. (b) Controlled observation. (c) Laboratory experiment. (d) Self-report. 2. How is separation anxiety assessed in the Strange Situation? (a) Being spoken to by a stranger. (b) Playing in an unfamiliar room. (c) Being left alone in the playroom. (d) Reunion with the primary attachment figure. 3. Which is true of securely attached babies in the Strange Situation? (a) They are clingy. (b) They get extremely anxious at separation. (c) They are happy at reunion with the primary attachment figure. (d) They show little or no anxiety. 4. Which of these is a strength of Ainsworth’s attachment types? (a) Influence of temperament. (b) Inter-rater reliability of the Strange Situation. (c) Cross-cultural validity of the Strange Situation. (d) Additional attachment types appear to exist. Cultural variations in attachment 1. In van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s study, which country had the highest rate of secure attachment? (a) Israel. (b) USA. (c) Great Britain. (d) China. 2. In van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s study, which country had the highest rate of insecure–avoidant attachment? (a) Germany. (b) Sweden. (c) Great Britain. (d) Japan. 3. In their Italian study, Simonelli et al . found an unusually high level of: (a) Insecure–resistant attachment. (b) Secure attachment. (c) Insecure–avoidant attachment. (d) Atypical attachment. 4. Which is not true of cross-cultural attachment comparisons? (a) Secure attachment is the most common type in every country. (b) There is more variation within countries than between them. (c) Some attachment behaviours seem to have different meanings in different countries. (d) Some countries have particularly bad parents. Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation 1. Which of the following best describes maternal deprivation? (a) Separation from the primary attachment figure. (b) Failure to attach to a primary attachment figure. (c) Failure of attachment figures to feed the baby. (d) Loss of emotional care of the primary attachment figure without a substitute. 2. The critical period in which prolonged separation can lead to deprivation is within the first: (a) 6 months. (b) 1 year. (c) 2 ½ years. (d) 5 years. 3. Which of the following is true of the 44 thieves study? (a) There was no association between maternal deprivation and affectionless psychopathy. (b) Partial replications, e.g. Lewis (1954) have found similar results. (c) Goldfarb was part of the team investigating the 44 thieves. (d) There may be bias because Bowlby assessed affectionless psychopathy and deprivation. 4. Which of the following is not usually a symptom of affectionless psychopathy? (a) Lack of empathy. (b) Lack of guilt. (c) Inability to form close relationships. (d) Serial murder. Romanian orphan studies: Institutionalisation 1. Which of the following best describes the aim of the ERA study? (a) A follow-up of Polish orphans looking at social and intellectual development. (b) A follow-up of Romanian orphans fostered in Romania. (c) A follow-up of Romanian orphans looking at social and intellectual development. (d) A follow-up testing the quality of adoptees available from Romania. 2. At four years: (a) A negative correlation was found between age at adoption and intellectual development. (b) A positive correlation was found between age at adoption and social-emotional development. (c) A positive correlation was found between age at adoption and intellectual development. (d) No correlations of any sort. 3. Which of the following is a symptom of disinhibited attachment? (a) Avoidant attachment behaviour. (b) Indiscriminate attachment behaviour. (c) Secure attachment behaviour. (d) Resistant attachment behaviour. 4. Why are the Romanian orphanage studies socially sensitive? (a) They involve adoption. (b) They involve immigration. (c) They risk self-fulfilling prophecies. (d) They risk breaking International law. Influence of early attachment on later relationships 1. Which of these is a true statement concerning internal working models? (a) They serve as templates for future relationships. (b) They are the result of temperament. (c) They predict perfectly what sort of relationships people will have. (d) They determine social development and are unalterable. 2. Which attachment type is most likely to be associated with being a bully? (a) Securely attached. (b) Insecure–resistant. (c) Insecure–avoidant. (d) Disinhibited. 3. Which attachment type did McCarthy find had problems maintaining friendships in adulthood? (a) Securely attached. (b) Insecure–resistant. (c) Insecure–avoidant. (d) Disinhibited. 4. Which study found no evidence of continuity between infant and adult attachment? (a) Rutherford cross-cultural study. (a) Regensburg longitudinal study. (b) Romanian adoption project. (a) Rotterdam university project. MCQ answers Caregiver–infant interactions 1C 2A 3D 4C Schaffer’s stages of attachment 1B 2B 3D 4C The role of the father 1B 2D 3D 4A Animal studies of attachment 1D 2A 3B 4A Explanations of attachment: Learning theory 1C 2A 3A 4B Explanations of attachment: Bowlby’s theory 1A 2D 3D 4C Types of attachment 1B 2C 3C 4B Cultural variations in attachment 1C 2A 3B 4D Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation 1D 2C 3D 4D Romanian orphan studies 1C 2A 3B 4C The influence of early attachment on later relationships 1A 2B 3B 4B Multiple-choice questions   //  103

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